44 terms

Animal Biology Exam 2

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

Classes withing the Phylum Platyhelminthes
-Class Turbellaria
-Class Monogenea
-Class Cestoda
-Class Trematoda
Class Cestoda
Tapeworms; Lack a digestive system; most have 2 hosts and multiple larval stages; synapomorphy: microtriches
Microtriches
Found in Class Cestoda; believed to help increase SA to allow for more absorption of nutrients.
Class Monogena
1 host; ectoparasite (fish gills); parasitize aquatic vertebrates; adults have haptor
Haptor
Structure for attachment found in Class Monogena
Class Trematoda
Obligate parasites of vertebrates; mostly internal; subclass Digena; examples: Clonorchis sinesis and Dicrocoelium dendriticum
Class Turbellaria
NOT monophyletic; free-living; all have epidermis
Cysticercus
Type of juvenile tapeworm; will occur in intermediate host (bad if intermediate host is human --> disease)
Subclass Digena Larval Stages
Miracidium --> sporocyst --> redia --> cercaria --> metacercaria
Scolex
Attachment organ of tapeworms
Strobila
The chain of proglottids in a tapeworm
Proglottids
Reproductive units (immature, mature, gravid)
Neodermis
Synapomorphy for Subphylum Neodermata; layer of cells with shared cytoplasm
Nervous System of Phylum Platyhelminthes
1. Cerebral ganglion
2. Series of longitudinal nerve cords
3. Number of transverse nerves
Protonephridia
Uses flagella to decrease the pressure in a flame cell to bring in water and waste and then pushes it out the nephridiopore/out of the body.
Vitellaria
Produces yolk
Digestive System of Phylum Platyhelminthes
Mouth --> Pharynx --> gut --> no anus
Lacunar System
Filled with fluid; exchange of gases, nutrients, waste pumped by tubes surrounded by muscles (functions as a heart); found in Phylum Acanthocephela
Phylum Acanthocephela
"Spiny headed worms"; 1200; adults parasitize vertebrates and larva parasitize invertebrates; sister group to rotifers; lives in host's intestines so they can absorb nutrients
Parthenogensis
"Virgin birth"; without fertilization
Rotifer Digestion
Mouth --> Mastax--> Stomach --> Intestines --> Anus
Phylum Acoelomorpha
350 spp; Aquatic; No gut; Asexual fragmentation
Corona
Ciliated crown used for locomotion and feeding in Rotifers
Mastax
Muscular pharynx with pair of jaws; Synapomorphy of Rotifers
Phylum Rotifera
2000 spp; Aquatic (marine); pseudocoelomates; mostly dioecious; some have hard cuticle; sensory: eye spots, cerebral ganglia, longitudinal nerve cords
Phylum Gastrotricha
450 spp; aquatic and meiofauna; complete digestive system; monoecious; cilia beat food into mouth; locomotion: cilia and longitudinal muscles; protonephridia with solenocyte
Solenocytes
Special types of flame bulb in which the bulb bears a single flagellum instead of a tuft of flagella; found in Phylum Gastrotricha
Phylum Loricifera
11 spp; protective external case; 5 body regions: mouth cone, head/introvert, neck, thorax, abdonmen; scalids; higgins larva
Lorica
Protectice external case found in Phylum Lorificera
Scalid
Curved spines found in Phylum Lorificera
Phylum Mesozoa
50 spp; "Middle animal"; may be missing link between protozoa and metazoa; all are parasitic of symbiotic; very small (20-30 cells)
Trophi
Jaws on Rotifers
Amitic Egg
Egg with fertilization
Mitic Egg
Egg with fertilization
Phylum Gnathostomulida
80 spp; Jaw Worm; interstitial/aquatic; monoecious; acoelomate; feed by scraping bacteria and fungi from substratum with jaws
Phylum Priapulida
16 spp; Penis Worm; Marine/cold; caudal appendages; pseudocoelomate; dioecious; external fertilization
Phylum Kinorhyncha
"Moveable Snout"; Mud Dragon; Burrow in mud/marine; pseudocoelomate; complete digestive
Phylum Micrognathozoa
1 sp; interstitial; acoelomate; diet: bacteria, algae, and diatoms
Eucoelomate
"True Cavity"
Pseudocoelomate
"False Cavity"
Parenchyma
Spongy mass of cells filling space in acoelomates
Acoelomates
"No cavity"
Embryonic Tissue Layers
1. Ectoderm - Epidermis and Nervous System
2. Mesoderm - Muscle, Reproductive, Circulatory, Excretory
3. Endoderm - Gut
Cephalization
Differentiation of the head in bilateral symmetry