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intro to funeral service FINAL
Terms in this set (232)
Earliest people known to maintain accurate health records
city of the dead
Circle of Necessity
in Egyptian culture, the journey to the Sun and back which required 3,000 years to complete.
Jars in which the ancient Egyptians preserved the internal organs of a deceased person usually for burial with the mummy.
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead
in ancient egypt, the priest was also referred to as the
the lawyer who drew line for incision on corpse
dissector of parachistes
aka the anatomist, made incision in which vicera were removed
Surgeon or embalmer
in charge of embalming & wrapping
a person who prepared and sold medicines and drugs
the individual involved in embalming the egyptian dead whose function was to anoint the body with the necessary oils, spices, and ointments was the
3 types of embalming
Expensive: brain removed thru ear, organs placed in jars, nails sewn back on w/ gold thread, body dried in sun, bandaged, & spiced.
Medium-priced: cedar oil injected in body, pickled in natron solution, dried in sun
Inexpensive: saturate body in natron solution, dry in sun
2 reasons/motivations for embalming
sanitation & religious reasons
inhabitants of Greece
God of wine
in Greek mythology, the Greek version of heaven.
river in the underworld
coin needed to pay ferryman on way to elysian fields
Ferryman of the underworld
3-headed dog guarding the entrance to Hades
the act of a Hindu widow willingly cremating herself on the funeral pyre of her dead husband
Greek preparation of the body
Made by female family members, washed body w/ warm water, laid out & dressed body, anointed w/ oils & perfumes, buried in clothing, flowers woven into wreaths, honey cake prepared for Cerberus, dead robed in white
Greek funeral procession
Started an hour before dawn, as body had been viewed the night before, body carried on a bier by family, friends, or hired corpse bearers
significance of cremation to greeks
flame would set soul free
types of materials greeks used for caskets
Wood, stone, & baked clay.
Cypress wood was the most popular
classification of tombs
Naidia: temple-like structures
the ancient Roman goddess of corpses and funerals
head undertaker in ancient Rome; the secular role model for today's funeral director; conducted his business at the temple of Libitina where death were also registered.
master of ceremonies and director of the ancient Roman funeral procession
crier who let everyone know funeral was occurring
early Roman view of the afterlife which emphasizes the soul as the vital principle. The soul at death hovered around the place of burial and required constant attention of the descendants to be happy. Neglect would bring evil upon them.
religious/philosophical belief of the ancient Greeks and Oriental East emphasizing spiritual aspects of the afterlife and the hope of joining the cult god in a wonderful existence in eternity.
belief in no afterlife, body simply disintegrates
dominant religion by 300 AD
everyone received a burial whether or not they could afford it
Early group of people who lived in lands between Mesopotamia and Egypt. They developed the religion Judaism.
Describe the Hebrew death beliefs including the terms basar, nefesh, and Sheol
The Hebrew believe that the body is made up of two components: the basar (or flesh) and the nefesh (or breath). They believe the soul/spirit is found in the blood. They also believe in a concept of Heaven or Hell. The Hebrew netherworld is called Sheol.
Hebrew Burial Customs
Eyes and mouth Closed
washed and anointed with sweet smelling spices
Dressed in best attire
Buried by evening of day of death
Hebrew mourning customs
Stripped down to loincloth
went barefoot with heads covered
early Hebrews cut off some hair and shaved beards
fasted the day of death
Used paid mourners for procession to cemetery
4 varieties of hebrew graves
to counteract the odor of decay, the hebrews used
perfumes & spices
a sleeping place
death beliefs of early christians
believe in concept of heaven & hell
soul is immortal
formal liturgical rite in early christian burial
the kiss of peace
why was cremation frowned upon?
The body needed to be transformed on judgment day, so it was to be buried not burned.
early christian burial customs
The body was laid out with lights beside it. The body was washed with holy water & sometimes incensed. A cross was laid on the breast or hands were folded to make a cross. Burial was on consecrated ground. Everyone received a burial.
role in family in christian burial
The family would touch the dead without fear of defilement, which included a "kiss of peace." Someone would rub the feet because it was believed the soul left from the feet up.
early christian preparation of body
The body was washed, and perfumes and spices were used to counteract the odor of decay.
Purpose of the wake
The wake was meant to make sure the body was dead and also to comfort the family.
christian funeral procession
The funeral was subdued as death was a celebration. It was limited to the corpse, bearers, family and friends. It was only done in the daytime. Flowers were left on the grave.
ancient scandinavians & germans
death beliefs of ancient scandinavians & germans
believed in a journey of the dead.
Cremation was protection for the dead and would aid in freeing the spirit.
2 reasons cremation was preferred to burial
Cremation would protect the dead and aid in freeing the spirit.
catholic doctrine of purgatory
A state in which those whose souls are not perfectly cleansed undergo a process of cleansing before they can enter heaven
Steward of the Guild
Made necessary funeral arrangements
mortuary fee paid to insure entrance of the decedent's soul into heaven.
would ring doorbells to tell of the death
a sculpture or model of a person
middle ages wake
served caution against premature burial
Gave opportunity for those present at time of death to clear themselves of any suspicion of fowl play, mourners drank wine w/ dead as symbol of communion
Funerals of State
Only for the nobility and church leaders, involved long wakes and there is evidence that crude embalming practices were used to deter putrefaction.
great plague of london
so much death that christian burial rites were stopped
development of burial clubs
Provided prayers, masses, yearly reminders, payment of fee for chaplain. Full-time occupation of inviting ppl to funeral
burial in woolen act
1666, wool was used instead of linen in casket funeral linings
during the late middle ages the following began experimenting w/ embalming
anatomists & sextons
Egyptians & burmese - yellow
Persians - brown
Armenians & syrian - light blue
Chinese - white
Modern colors are white for kids & black for adults
Widow expected to retire to convent, only young allowed to remarry
role of sexton
A semi-secular under officer of the church, delegated to care for church property, the ringing of bells and the digging of the graves.
Independent Heart Burial
This practice began in 1117 as dismembered fragments of the bodies of saints were preserved and regarded as holy relics with special prominence being given to the heart
Independent Bone Burial
a social development in the middle ages whereby the bodies of the noble were separated and the bones were brought back to their home in a chest describes
What was the embalming procedure during the middle ages and when was it practiced?
The procedure involved removing the intestines, stomach, liver, pancreas, kidneys, & esophagus. They opened the body and washed it w/ water, alcohol, and rose water. They dried it and filled it with spices, cotton, and chemicals. Filling the body helped remove odor. Embalming was only practiced for sanitary reasons
significance of surgeons and anatomists during middle ages
performed the embalming
How did reformation in the Christian church affect funeral practices?
There was a decrease in burial clubs because of the rejection of prayers for the dead. There was also a decrease in ostentation.
Drew over 750 anatomical planes, dissected over 50 cadavers
(1578-1657) An Englishman who used dissection to examine the circulation of blood throughout the body and how the heart worked as a pump. He insisted the heart and its valves were a piece of machinery that obeyed mechanical laws.
Dutch professor who developed method to input putrefaction in specimens which led to arterial embalming.
Scottish anatomist who originated the injection technique for use in arterial and cavity embalming
1st to publish to his class how to arterially embalm
Investigated sanitary conditions of laboring population of Great Britain
His work was basis for establishing embalming method used in US
The History of Embalming was originally written in:
upholsterers & drapers
Furnished funerary goods such as velvet palls, mourning cloaks, & black hangings for rooms
carpenters & cabinetmakers
they alone had right to open, sear, & embalm corpse
What were the functions of the funeral undertaker during the time period of the 1400's?
Undertook to provide funerary paraphernalia
what motif did virginia colony have
what motif did Massachusetts bay colony have
Through most of the 17th century, underwriters in common language was called by what name?
most common symbol of death during early new england days
skull & crossbones
the earliest new england burials were
models of simplicity & quiet dignity
early new england burial
Burial consisted of procession to the grave & placement & filling of the grave
characteristics of broadside sheets
It was a handbill of sorts which contained the eulogy.
The most popular was the skull & cross bones
gifts colonists gave to mourners
Rings, scarves, gloves, purses, tobacco, liquor, books
Why did the puritans include children in their funerals?
to teach them about death
What was a monkey spoon and how did it receive its name?
An image of a saint on the handle of a spoon
Looked more like monkeys than humans
How did the revolutions affect burial in the Colonies?
Funerals became more secular, class distinction was made on basis of earthly possessions, use of clothing as gifts decreased
role of clergy in puritan funeral
No use of clergy b/c it was considered a civil matter
Colonial funerals generally combined which three functions?
Socialization, reaffirmation, religion
The occupation of an undertaker first became common during which century?
In the Colonies, how was social class established?
both occupation & commercial success
where did early american burial take place
protestantism death beliefs
Judgment day could lead to eternal damnation for the lazy
Historical records show this group of people originally as underwriters of commercial ventures
usually supplied by cabinetmakers
Who furnished other undertakers with necessary supplies and paraphernalia?
Why were carriages, buggies and horses being rented to take the body to the graveside?
Cities grew & caused more distance to the graveside
What role did the nurse, midwife, and family and friends play at a death?
they cared for the dead
duties of colonial sexton
Churchyard burial & care for cemetery
difference b/w colonial sexton and english sexton
colonial sexton charged a fee
Where were coffins stored during Colonial times?
They were built as needed (i made this up)
document required to bury in churchyards & church cemeteries
One of the 1st to advertise as an undertaker in 1768
role of municipal officers
Licensed & received compensation to attend funerals for the poor free of charge
a cabinet maker-undertaker from in Baltimore, MD was appointed coroner in 1799
layers out of the dead
became an occupational specialty in many larger US cities by the end of the 18th century; predecessor to the undertaker
What were the specific undertaking procedures from death to burial of the undertaker before 1859?
Laying out the body
Casketing or coffining the body
Transporting the body to the grave
u know what it is
what did different varieties of wood reveal?
economic status of person buried
With the appearance of these small, but productive businesses, the emphasis in funerals began to shift in the direction of the coffin
Early coffin shops & coffin warehouses
What was a goal of the coffin and casket makers to reach improvement?
Better indicating the importance of the deceased & his/her family
Provide protection against grave robbers
Protect against the elements
What alternative materials to coffins made of wood appeared in the first half of the 19th century?
Stone, marble, hydraulic cement
Fisk metallic coffin
patented in 1848 as form-fitting, airtight metallic coffin designed to improve ability to preserve the body; also had a glass plate to allow for viewing of the face
type of ice chest placed over the torso the body in order to slow down the process of decomposition prior to the funeral. It was typically a responsibility of the undertaker to provide ice and change the ice when it melted.
crane & breed casket
1st true sheet metal caskets
Who was the first person to receive a patent on an ogee design? Describe the ogee design
AC Barstow of Rhode Island
a square sided casket
reduced excess space and weight
was characterized by "S" shaped curvature
What type of casket was provided for President Grant?
Style E State casket
Caskets of cement-stone later developed into what?
Marble, artificial stone, clay
What was the purpose of "Life Signals"?
Fear of live burial & grave robbers
What claims did Almond Fisk make about his casket?
It was airtight & used the least amount of metal possible, so it was lightweight
In what year did Crane & Breed purchase the Fisk Company?
What was a result of Stein's Casket display at the Philadelphia Centennial?
Caused undertakers to begin displaying their caskets
What is one of the major decisions a society must make regarding its dead?
Whether or not corpse should be preserved
What did Benjamin Franklin anticipate by nearly two centuries
In what year and to whom was given a patent for a Refrigerator for Corpses?
ROBERT FREDRICK AND G. A. TRUMP, OF BALTIMORE, MARYLAND
Describe the corpse cooler including the material is was made from.
The body was laid out on the cooling board
It was a concave metal ice-filled box which fit a torso
Equipped w/ a lid, spigot, & handles
Made of zinc & wood
What were metallic burial cases presumed to have?
Protection from plague
Why were most bodies embalmed during the early 1800's?
The need appeared for embalming as a consequence of the inability of the poorest urban classes to pay funeral expenses
The body remained until the money could be raised
Who was Dr.Thomas Holmes?
Father of american embalming
Recognized the compounds used as poisonous & injurious to the health of the students dissecting the cadavers
What artery did Dr. Holmes use to embalm?
What types of embalming fluids did Dr. Holmes use to embalm?
What was the Order Concerning Embalmers and who issued it?
All embalming was done for uniform fee
Issued by the war dept in 1865
From the Civil War to the end of the century the story of embalming in America is best seen in three dimensions. List these three dimensions.
resistance to chemical preservatives, the rise and decline of the medical specialist as embalmer, the development of a commercial enterprise in the compounding and distribution of embalming fluids
sharply pointed surgical instrument used in cavity embalming to aspirate the cavities and inject cavity fluid; the trocar may also be used for supplemental hypodermic embalming
In what year and to who was the first patent granted to for a process in embalming by a method depending primarily, but not wholly on, injection of a chemical compound?
1856 J. Anthony Gassuardia
Who was Dr. Auguste Renouard?
opened the rochester school of embalming in 1882
What were the public's fear concerning embalming around 1882?
Unembalmed seen as unsanitary
What nickname was given to funeral directors who used the trocar?
Who introduced the first rubberized body carrier?
Dr thomas homes
Who patented the first corpse cooler?
robert frederick and c.a. trump
During what years did the corpse cooler dominate?
The most common symbol of the funeral procession is what standard piece of equipment?
How did extramural burial affect transportation?
Coffin needed to be carried on bier
In early Colonial times, what two modes of transportation were used?
Hand-held biers & horse-drawn wagons
List some of the companies manufacturing hearses during the period of 1850-1910.
James cunningham - exhibited at the new orleans cotton exposition in 1884 featuring a funeral car (see plate 51 on pg 239)
Hudson samson - in 1889 he introduced a new style w/ an oval deck & 8 posts
Crane & breed - exhibited a funeral car at the chicago world fair in 1893 (see plate 54 on pg 247)
Describe the hearse of the 1850's.
Describe the hearse of the 1860's-1870's (the Civil War period).
a long, soft feather or arrangement of feathers used by a bird for display or worn by a person for ornament.
Define and describe- "Funeral Car"
A funeral car is used to carry the dead in a coffin. It has room to fit a coffin.
Define the progression of the term "Bier"
Bier - to carry by hand
Hearses used more
"Hearse" & "bier" were used interchangeably thru 1850s
In 1909 two technical advances were made which brought about drastic change, what were they?
Motorized ambulance & auto-hearse
In what year did the first gas powered automobile slowly go through the streets of Detroit?
In 1909, what was the selling point for using motorized vehicles on funeral services?
Smooth glide to cemetery
Reasons many gave for their belief that the auto-hearse would be slow in taking hold (the book lists five).
Limited to large cities & moved too slow
Define and describe a limousine hearse.
appeared after WWI; began tendency to blend hearse & other conveyances in pleasing style
Define and describe the "side-service" feature.
Allowed casket to exit through either side doors
Until the Civil War, hearses were nearly always painted this color.
Children's hearses were nearly always painted this color.
After WWI, motor hearses were offered in this color.
Varied, sometimes gray but mostly dark color
Why was keeping a shiny finish on a hearse a problem and how was it solved?
Hearses need to always look clean, start w/ full-gloss & work way down to lower-gloss
How were the flowers carried to the grave?
Describe the atmosphere of the late 19th century.
Atmosphere of anxiety & emotional strain
Where did most deaths occur during the late 19th century?
Describe the role of the undertaker in the city.
sent invitations, general supervisor, supplier & arranger of funeral paraphernalia
Describe the role of the undertaker in the rural areas.
ordered the casket, casketed deceased, & generally arranged things so that the preacher could play the dominating role
Why did people oppose embalming?
Many ppl viewed embalming of mutilation of the body
How was a casket selected?
Undertaker's display or supply room
What were the materials being used for caskets and which was the most popular?
Wood; Hardwood was the most popular
How long did it take to receive a casket once ordered and what were the delivery times dependent upon?
Once ordered, it took b/w 20-60hrs to get a casket
Availability, type of casket & distance were always factors
Who were the participants in the late 19th century funerals and who played the dominating role?
In city: friends, family, pallbearers, clergy, funeral director, hearse driver
Undertaker was lead role
In rural areas: most of the ppl of the town or village were involved
preacher was lead role
In city: friends, family, pallbearers, clergy, funeral director, hearse driver
Undertaker was lead role
In rural areas: most of the ppl of the town or village were involved
preacher was lead role
What did the undertaker supervise at the cemetery?
What did the undertaker supervise at the cemetery?
What was considered the period of deepest mourning?
1st 6 months
How did the term "couch" (referring to the casket) come about?
Caskets styled like couch to make the deceased look as comfortable & natural as possible
Why did the undertaker first only charge for merchandise sold and not for his services?
The role of the undertaker originally only involved funerary paraphernalia; preacher was dominant role
What publication launched The Public Health Movement in America?
report of the massachusetts sanitary commission
What Board did congress establish in 1878?
National Board of Health
In what city was the first formal association organized?
In what state was the first convention held?
Who was the "Father" of the National Funeral Directors Association?
In what year was the NFDA formed?
At the first NFDA gathering a decision was made that the term Undertaker should be replaced with _____.
What was the purpose of the Code of Ethics established at the 3rd annual NFDA meeting?
Achieves professional recognition
Developed a sense of inner cohesion
Character & occupational morality
Necessity of obeying the law
Maintains a high standard of conduct & advertising
Advertising in daily papers was prohibited
What were the characteristics of early leadership of the NFDA?
Learned in direction of creating a profession out of their trade
In many cases, funeral directors were farm born, self-made men
Communication with the trade/profession was mostly through what form of media?
Trade papers & Trade magazine
What were some of the early problems facing NFDA?
There were no regulations, established rules such as including the body had to be embalmed, could not have an infectious disease, specified conditions of transport & required permits
What state was the first to require licensure of embalmers?
American Board of Funeral Service Education
accrediting agency for mortuary science schools
International Conference of Funeral Service Examining Boards
They administer the Nat'l Board Exam
University Mortuary Science Educational Association
organization of college and university based funeral service education programs
National Association of Colleges of Mortuary Science
for privately sponsored schools with the goal of advancement in mortuary education
National Funeral Directors Association
leading and largest funeral service association
National Selected Morticians
A limited membership funeral service organization formed on the basis of one member firm per city; now known as Selected Independent Funeral Homes (SIFH)
Order of the Golden Rule
committed to quality services and high standards; membership limited to one independently owned funeral home per community
Cremation Association of North America
promote cremation as a modern, safe and hygienic disposition
National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association
established to represent interests of African-American funeral directors
Casket Manufacturers Association
intended to facilitate sharing of information
Int'l Cemetery & Funeral Association
goal was to improve the appearance and operations of their properties
American Monument Association
promote the use of American-manufactured memorials
Casket & Funeral Supply Association of America
represent the interests of member suppliers to licensed funeral homes and licensed funeral directors
Florida School Board Attorneys Association
collegial body for the attorneys representing Florida's 67 school districts
Monument Builders of North America
define and promote permanent memorialization in a viable, innovative and diversified way for the membership and to enhance the awareness of permanent memorialization by the general public and the remembrance industry
National Catholic Cemetery Conference
committed to cemetery advocacy and education
National Concrete Burial Vault Assn.
provides a unified voice for the concrete burial vault industry, regardless of product affiliation, brand recognition or location
How many accredited Mortuary Schools are there in the United States?
57 schools in 30 states plus DC
List some of the topics included in non-commercial mortuary schools.
What are the purposes of licensing laws?
Increase educational requirements
Serve to meet the best interests of the general public w/ respect to health & sanitation
Provide a forum to regulate licensed professionals
Offer reciprocity opportunities
Who generally makes the call to the funeral home telling of the death?
Most calls come from someone other than a family member
Usually, a death that occurs in the home is what type of experience for the family?
usually a traumatic one
How will the family behave if they know the funeral director?
They will feel more comfortable sharing their emotions & needs
When a death occurs at a medical institution, where is the body usually kept?
The hospital or a family member will call the funeral home and make arrangements for the body to be picked up and transferred to a funeral provider or other designated facility. If the hospital has a morgue, they may transfer the body there while waiting for transportation
If the family is Jewish, who will you contact to perform the services?
What is the name of the room where the caskets are displayed?
What is the easiest way to get from the funeral service to the cemetery?
Procession of cars following hearse to cemetery
What is another name for the Mass of Christian Burial?
Whole-Man Total Funeral Concept
1 licensed person is made responsible to a family for all the needs and tasks associated with the funeral; usually for small Ma and Pa funeral homes
Owner Manager Technician Concept
After receiving the death call, the same licensee would not be involved in all facets of the funeral details. Rather there will be one or more persons with specialized knowledge or skill who will perform their task, and having done so, their responsibility for that "service" ends.
Describe a trade embalmer.
Funeral homes hire trade embalmers on a per job basis when circumstances or financial constraints prevent them from employing a full time embalmer or if a particular case is beyond their skill set
List and describe the different pricing methods.
Single unit: the price on the casket includes the casket, services, & facilities of the establishment
Bi-unit: the family is charged for services & facilities, & a separate charge for the casket
Tri-unit: there are 3 categories - services, facilities, & casket
Multi-unit or functional pricing: Components are priced separately along w/ items w/in the components