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sternum, ribs, costal cartilages, thoracic vertebrae

What is the thoracic cage made up of?

protect heart and lungs, support clavicle and scapula, hemopoiesis

What is the function of the thoracic cage?

RBC, WBC, and platelet formation

What is hemopoiesis?

ribs, sternum, centra of vertebrae

Where is red bone marrow found in the thoracic cage?


What is the upper part of the sternum?

clavicle, first pair of ribs

What does the manubrium articulate with?

manubrium, sternal angle of louis, gladiolus, xiphoid process

What is the sternum made up of?

between manubrium and gladiolus

Where is the sternal angle of louis found?

second pair of ribs

What does the sternal angle of louis articulate with?


What is the largest component of the sternum?

third through tenth pairs of ribs

What does the gladiolus articulate with?

xiphoid process

What is the lower part of the sternum?

hyaline cartilage

What tissue does xiphoid process start as?


What tissue does xiphoid process end as?

abdominal muscles

What muscles attach at the xiphoid process?

analyze for blood disorders

What are bone marrow samples used for?


What bone is often used for procurement of red bone marrow samples?

sternal puncture

What is the procurement of red bone marrow in the sternum called?

head, neck, angle, body, intercostal spaces

What are the components of ribs?


How many pairs of ribs are there?

centrum of thoracic vertebrae

What does the head of ribs articulate with?

tubercle with facet

What is found on the neck of the ribs?

transverse process of T1-T10 vertebrae

What vertebrae does the neck of ribs articulate with?

costal groove

Where are the intercostal nerves and intercostal blood vessels found on ribs?

intercostal nerves, intercostal blood vessels

What is found in the costal groove of ribs?


Which pairs of ribs are true ribs?


What are the true ribs attached to?


Which pairs of ribs are false ribs?


Which pairs of ribs are vertebrochondral ribs?


Which pairs of ribs are vertebral or floating ribs?

do not attach to sternum at all

Why are the 11-12 pairs of ribs called vertebral or floating ribs?

between ribs

Where are intercostal spaces?

breathing movements

What do intercostal spaces function in?

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