"steady state"; maintenance of internal body conditions within a narrow range of values around a set point despite fluctuations in environmental conditions; Ex: temperature, pH, chemical concentrations (O2 and CO2), water balance
sum of all chemical reactions of cell or organism
generate their own chemical energy; Ex: photosynthesis = plants capture energy from sun and convert it to chemical energy (sugar) to fuel metabolism
Heterotroph (consumers and decomposers)
must obtain chemical energy from another source by ingestion or absorption; Ex: animals eat other organisms and use their chemical energy to power metabolic activities
can also be defined as the change in gene frequencies in populations over time
the formation of new and distinct species
Substances that cannot be broke down by ordinary chemical processes.
a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by a chemical bond
Positive electrical charge
Electrically neutral, which means they are uncharged.
Much smaller and about 1/800th the mass of either protons or neutrons. They bear a negative electrical charge.
Atoms with same number of protons, but different number of neutrons. They can have different mass numbers.
Created by electrical attraction between cation (positive ions) and anions (negative ions); A chemical bond that forms between ions of opposite charges. Hint: Metal + Nonmetal
Involve sharing of electrons between neutral atoms; A type of strong bond between two or more of the same or different elements, forms when electrons are shared between elements. Hint: Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Special case of covalent bond in which partial positive charge on polar hydrogen is attracted to partial negative charge on another polar molecule; A weak bond between partially positively charged hydrogen atoms and partially negatively charged elements or molecules.
a type of covalent bond in which electrons are pulled toward one atom and away from another, resulting in slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the molecule
a type of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between atoms, resulting in no regions with partial charges as in polar covalent bonds
Polar; form hydrogen bonds with water and can dissolve in it.
Non-polar; do not dissolve in water.
(of a molecule, especially a protein) having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
Substance capable of dissolving another substance
The dissolved substance in a solution.
A small molecule; Constituent molecules are monomers.
Long-chain molecule made up of a repeated pattern of monomers; Macromolecules are polymers.
Permanent changes in protein structure that leads to loss of function.
a catalyst in a biochemical reaction that is usually a complex or conjugated protein
a chemical signaling molecule, usually a protein or steroid, secreted by an endocrine gland or group of endocrine cells; acts to control or regulate specific physiological processes
Addition of phosphate group to an organic molecule
How many times an image is enlarged.
Ability to distinguish two adjacent structures as separate objects.
a relationship in which organisms of two different species forma mutually beneficial relationship.
The ability of substances to pass through a barrier.
Study of energy and energy transfer
Study of energy flow (transformation) through living systems
A metabolic pathway that require energy to synthesize (combine) larger molecules
A metabolic pathway that generate energy by breaking down larger molecules
Exit energy/ Releases energy
Cannot continue without oxygen
Does not require energy
process that uses an organic molecule as an electron acceptor
Energy obtained from surroundings must be transformed into a form that is usable by the cell.; It is an energy supplying molecule that has high amounts of potential energy
Donates electrons to the electron transport chain. A product of both glycolysis and kreb cycles
Donates electrons to the electron transport chain. Produced in kreb cycle
An integral membrane protein that functions as an enzyme.
Use sunlight energy and carbon from carbon dioxide to synthesize chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates
Middle layer of a leaf
Small, regulated openings that allow exchange of CO2 and O2
Space surrounding thylakoid grana within chloroplast
Double-membrane bound organelles
Is a pigment. Responsible for green color of plants
Granum (pl. grana)
Stacks of thylakoids
Breaking apart a molecule
Distance from crest to crest or trough to trough.
Range all wavelengths emitted by the sun
Visible light spectrum
Humans can only see a fraction of spectrum
ATP and NADPH
carry energy forward to be used in the Calvin cycle
The process of converting inorganic CO2 gas into organic compounds
The enzyme that catalyzes fixation reactions.
a five atoms of carbon and a phosphate group on each end. Reacts with CO2 (with the help of RuBisCO) during the Calvin cycle to create a six carbon into two three-carbon compounds (process called carbon fixation).