Unit 1 terms to know

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Terms in this set (...)

Homeostasis
"steady state"; maintenance of internal body conditions within a narrow range of values around a set point despite fluctuations in environmental conditions; Ex: temperature, pH, chemical concentrations (O2 and CO2), water balance
Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions of cell or organism
Autotroph (producers)
generate their own chemical energy; Ex: photosynthesis = plants capture energy from sun and convert it to chemical energy (sugar) to fuel metabolism
Heterotroph (consumers and decomposers)
must obtain chemical energy from another source by ingestion or absorption; Ex: animals eat other organisms and use their chemical energy to power metabolic activities
Evolution
can also be defined as the change in gene frequencies in populations over time
Speciation
the formation of new and distinct species
Elements
Substances that cannot be broke down by ordinary chemical processes.
Molecule
a chemical structure consisting of at least two atoms held together by a chemical bond
Proton
Positive electrical charge
Neutron
Electrically neutral, which means they are uncharged.
Electron
Much smaller and about 1/800th the mass of either protons or neutrons. They bear a negative electrical charge.
Isotope
Atoms with same number of protons, but different number of neutrons. They can have different mass numbers.
Cation
Positive ions
Anion
Negative ions
Ionic bond
Created by electrical attraction between cation (positive ions) and anions (negative ions); A chemical bond that forms between ions of opposite charges. Hint: Metal + Nonmetal
Covalent bond
Involve sharing of electrons between neutral atoms; A type of strong bond between two or more of the same or different elements, forms when electrons are shared between elements. Hint: Nonmetal + Nonmetal
Hydrogen bond
Special case of covalent bond in which partial positive charge on polar hydrogen is attracted to partial negative charge on another polar molecule; A weak bond between partially positively charged hydrogen atoms and partially negatively charged elements or molecules.
Polar
a type of covalent bond in which electrons are pulled toward one atom and away from another, resulting in slightly positive and slightly negative charged regions of the molecule
Nonpolar
a type of covalent bond that forms between atoms when electrons are shared equally between atoms, resulting in no regions with partial charges as in polar covalent bonds
Hydrophilic
Polar; form hydrogen bonds with water and can dissolve in it.
Hydrophobic
Non-polar; do not dissolve in water.
Amphipathic
(of a molecule, especially a protein) having both hydrophilic and hydrophobic parts.
Solvent
Substance capable of dissolving another substance
Solute
The dissolved substance in a solution.
Monomer
A small molecule; Constituent molecules are monomers.
Polymer
Long-chain molecule made up of a repeated pattern of monomers; Macromolecules are polymers.
Denaturation
Permanent changes in protein structure that leads to loss of function.
Enzyme
a catalyst in a biochemical reaction that is usually a complex or conjugated protein
Hormone
a chemical signaling molecule, usually a protein or steroid, secreted by an endocrine
gland or group of endocrine cells; acts to control or regulate specific physiological processes
Phosphorylation
Addition of phosphate group to an organic molecule
Magnification
How many times an image is enlarged.
Resolution
Ability to distinguish two adjacent structures as separate objects.
Symbiosis
a relationship in which organisms of two different species forma mutually beneficial relationship.
Permeability
The ability of substances to pass through a barrier.
Thermodynamics
Study of energy and energy transfer
Bioenergetics
Study of energy flow (transformation) through living systems
Anabolism
A metabolic pathway that require energy to synthesize (combine) larger molecules
Catabolism
A metabolic pathway that generate energy by breaking down larger molecules
Endergonic
Absorb energy
Exergonic
Exit energy/ Releases energy
Aerobic
Cannot continue without oxygen
Anaerobic
Does not require energy
Fermentation
process that uses an organic molecule as an electron acceptor
ATP
Energy obtained from surroundings must be transformed into a form that is usable by the cell.; It is an energy supplying molecule that has high amounts of potential energy
NADPH
Donates electrons to the electron transport chain. A product of both glycolysis and kreb cycles
FADH2
Donates electrons to the electron transport chain. Produced in kreb cycle
ATP synthase
An integral membrane protein that functions as an enzyme.
Photoautotroph
Use sunlight energy and carbon from carbon dioxide to synthesize chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates
Mesophyll
Middle layer of a leaf
Stomata
Small, regulated openings that allow exchange of CO2 and O2
Thylakoids
Membrane 'stacks' inside chloroplasts. Contain chlorophyll molecules
Stroma
Space surrounding thylakoid grana within chloroplast
Chloroplast
Double-membrane bound organelles
Chlorophyll
Is a pigment. Responsible for green color of plants
Pigment
color
Granum (pl. grana)
Stacks of thylakoids
Hydrolysis
Breaking apart a molecule
Wavelength
Distance from crest to crest or trough to trough.
Electromagnetic spectrum
Range all wavelengths emitted by the sun
Visible light spectrum
Humans can only see a fraction of spectrum
ATP and NADPH
carry energy forward to be used in the Calvin cycle
Carbon fixation
The process of converting inorganic CO2 gas into organic compounds
RuBisCO
The enzyme that catalyzes fixation reactions.
RuBP
a five atoms of carbon and a phosphate group on each end. Reacts with CO2 (with the help of RuBisCO) during the Calvin cycle to create a six carbon into two three-carbon compounds (process called carbon fixation).