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Biology 101 Exam 2
Terms in this set (137)
-common to all cells
-forms a barrier
-fluid mosaic model
Fluid Mosaic Model
flexible structure with many different proteins throughout
Lipids in plasma membrane
Carbohydrates in plasma membrane
Proteins in plasma membrane
external surface AND cytoplasmic surface lined with hydrophillic polar heads.
cholesterol is embedded throughout the phospholipid bilayer.
Functions: Stabilize and strengthen plasma membrane and maintain fluidity of plasma membrane..
phospholipid with a carbohydrate group attached
protein with a carbohydrate group attached.
"sticky" or "sugar coat" on the exterior of the plasma membrane from from glycolipids and glycoproteins.
Functions: cell-to-cell adhesion, cell recognition, and reception of signaling molecules.
Proteins: Integral proteins
pass completely through the plasma membrane.
Proteins: Peripheral proteins
stay on the outside/inside of the plasma membrane
Types of Integral and Peripheral proteins
Allows a particular molecule or ion to cross the plasma membrane freely.
Selectively interacts with a specific molecule or ion so that it can cross the plasma membrane.
Cell Recognition Protein
Helps cells recognize each other as self.
Catalyzes a specific reaction
Tight junctions join cells so that a tissue can fulfill a function.
Is shapes in such a way that a specific molecule can bind to it.
ATP (energy) is required. The movement of molecules AGAINST their concentration gradient. Low to high concentration.
Types of Active Transport
exocytosis, endocytosis, and pumps
NO energy required
Types of Passive Transport
diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion
a homogenous mixture of two or more substances
component in a solution that is present in the greater amount.
component in a solution that is present in the lesser amount
Down the concentration gradient
high concentration --> lower concentration
Up the concentration gradient
lower concentration --> higher concentration
high to low concentration. Equilibrium- when NET movement stops.
Special case of diffusion, focuses on movement of water. NET movement of water is toward low water (or high solute) concentration.
Solute and water concentration are equal on both sides of the cellular membrane. There is no net gain or loss of water by the cell.
Concentration of solute in the solution is LOWER than inside the cell (more water outside). Water moves in and the cell swells. Causes TURGOR PRESSURE in plants. Causes animal cells to lyse (rupture/burst)
Concentration of solute is HIGHER in the solution than inside the cell (less water outside). Water moves out and cell shrinks. CRENATION in animal cells. PLASMOLYSIS in plant cells.
Movement of molecules that cannot pass directly through the membrane lipids. EX: glucose and amino acids. High to low concentration. No energy is required.
Sodium potassium pump
uses ATP to move sodium ions out of the cells and potassium ions into the cell.
macromolecules are transported into or out of the cell inside vesicles via bulk transport. Vesicles fuse with plasma membrane and secrete contents.
cells engulf substances into a pouch, which becomes a vesicle.
large, solid material is taken in by endocytosis
vesicles form around a liquid or very small particles
Specific form of pinocytosis using receptor proteins and a coated pit
Extracellular matrix (ECM)
Mesh work of proteins and polysaccharides found between cells.
adhesive proteins that help cells stick together
integral membrane proteins that connect ECM to cytoskeleton.
Filaments join plaques on two adjacent cells
consist of proteins that rivet cells together in a zipper-like fashion so that no material can pass between the cells. Found in tissues such as intestines and kidneys
Connection between neighboring cells through the joining of PM integral channel proteins. Function: ions, water, nutrients, cell signals may pass quickly between cells.
Membrane-lined channels in plant cell walls that connect plant cells together. Allow quick passage of water and small solutes between plant cells, but restrict passage of larger molecules.
Process by which cells acquire energy by breaking down glucose.
process by which cells acquire energy by breaking down glucose
C6H12O6 + 6O2 → 6CO2 + 6H2O
Eukaryotic cells produce 36 ATP / glucose
Prokaryotic cells produce 38 ATP / glucose
Glucose is oxidized and O2 is reduced.
Energy is extracted from the glucose molecule
NAD+ and FAD
Coenzymes (non-protein organic enzyme helpers)
othat pick up electrons (& H+) and carry them to the ETC
NAD+ → NADH
FAD → FADH2
can function without oxygen
Location: ytology outside mitochondria
Ins: Glucose, 2 ATP
Outs: 2 pyruvates (prep reaction or fermentation),
2 NADH (ETC or return to glycolysis), 4 ATP
Follows glycolysis if there is no oxygen
Ins: 2 pyruvate (from glycolysis) 2 NADH (from glycolysis)
Outs: 2 lactate (animals) OR 2 alcohol + 2
CO2 (plants and microbes)
2 NAD+ (returns to glycolysis)
Main purpose: recycle NADH → NAD+ that
returns to glycolysis
No ATP produced from
Muscles & Lactate Fermentation
When muscle cells work very hard, they cannot
take in enough O2 to power aerobic respiration →
use fermentation to supplement
Produce lactate (lactic acid)
Lactate can be damaging to cells
(One of many things responsible for cramps & fatigue associated with hard work or exercise)
Cells get rid of excess lactate by using O2 to
convert it back to pyruvate.
Results in oxygen debt
Fermentation: Advantages and Disadvantages
Allows organisms(e.g. yeast & some
bacteria) to live in hypoxic or anoxic
(little or no O2) environments Allows muscle tissue
to supplement ATP production
Produces byproducts that are damaging to the organism
Lactate and alcohol are toxic to cells.
Lactate changes pH and causes muscles to fatigue.
Yeast die from the alcohol they produce by fermentation.
Less efficient (2 ATP vs 36-38ATP)
Outer membrane: smooth
Inner membrane: folded into "cristae"
Inner fluid = "matrix"
The sum of cellular chemical reactions in cell.
Citric Acid Cycle
For each glucose molecule that enters glycolysis, CAC turns 2 times
Ins: oxaloacetate (turns into citric acid)
2 acetyl CoA (from prep)
Outs: 2 ATP
6 NADH (→ ETC)
2 FADH2 (→ ETC)
2 oxaloacetate (returns to CAC)
Byproducts: 4 CO2
Electron Transport Chain
Ins: 10 NADH (from glycolysis, prep, and CAC)
2 FADH2 (from CAC) ½ O2
Outs: 32-34 ATP, H2O
Each NADH produces 3 ATP's 10 NADH x 3 = 30 ATP
Each FADH2 produces 2 ATP's 2 FADH2 x 2 = 4 ATP
30 + 4 = 34 ATP
Low-energy electron accepted by O at end of ETC → combines with H+ to form H2O
Oxygen is the final electron acceptor
As electron moves through ETC, H+ is actively pumped from matrix to intermembrane space
ATP synthase moves H + down concentration gradient back into matrix & produces ATP
Break down molecules:
Build molecules from monomers
Broken down into
monosaccharides (Converted to glucose)
Enters respiration pathways
Catabolism: Lipids (Fats)
Broken down into:
Glycerol: Converted to G3P
Fatty acids: Converted to acetyl CoA
Broken down into amino
Amino group is removed
Remainder of AA:
Converted to pyruvate &
enters prep reaction
Converted to acetyl CoA &
Anabolism: Lipids (Fats)
G3P → glycerol
Acetyl CoA → fatty acids
Glycerol & fatty acids
reassembled to fats
Amino acids can be
produced from intermediates within the CAC.
We can produce 11 (of the 20) AAs this way =
nonessential amino acids
The other 9 AAs must be consumed in the diet =
essential amino acids
participate in a reaction
Form as a result of a reaction
The amount of energy available to perform work
Products have less free energy than reactants (release energy).
Products have more free energy than reactants (require energy input).
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
high-energy, unstable compound used to drive metabolic reactions. Composed of Adenine, ribose, and three phosphate groups
Factors affecting enzymatic speed.
Cells can activate or deactivate some enzymes.
Activating: Enzyme Co-factors
Deactivating: Enzyme Inhibition: Two types: Competitive and non Competitive
inhibitor binds to active site, directly blocking the substrate from binding.
Inhibitor binds to another site on the enzyme that causes the active site to change shape so the substrate can't bind.
The end product of a metabolic pathway becomes the inhibitor and binds to the enzyme, preventing any further substrate binding. Form of non-competitive inhibition
In the case of covalent reactions in cells, we are dealing with hydrogen atoms. Oxidation= loss of hydrogen
Energy released by an exergonic reaction (or reactions) is captured in ATP. ATP is then used to drive an endergonic reaction.
When the active site of an enzyme joins with the substrates. Causes the active site to change shape, which forces substrates together initiating a bond
Enzymes operate by lowering the energy of activation
Accomplished by bringing substrates into contact with one another
Most enzymes are optimized for a particular pH.
Enzyme activity increases with temperature. Warmer temps cause more effective collisions between enzyme and substrate. However, hot temperatures can denature and destroy enzymes
Building large molecules from smaller ones. Complexes with two substrate molecules.
enzyme activity increases with substrate concentration due to more frequent collisions between substrate molecules and the enzyme.
Breaking down large molecules into smaller ones. Complexes with a single substrate molecules.
Energy of Activation
When molecules frequently do not react with one another unless they are activated in some way. Energy must be added to at least one reactant to initiate the reaction.
Protein molecules function as catalysts. Speeds up reactions. The reactants are called substrates.
Preparatory (prep) reaction
Preps glycolysis products for the citric acid cycle
Ins: 2 pyruvate (from glycolysis), 2 CoA
Outs: 2 acetyl CoA (→ Citric Acid [Krebs] Cycle), 2 NADH (→ ETC)
Byproducts: 2 CO2
Movement of charged particles.
First law of thermodynamics
Energy cannot be created or destroyed, but can be changed from one form to another.
Ex.Moose eats plants, gets chemical energy in the form of carbohydrates
Second law of thermodynamics
When energy is changed from one form to another, there is a loss of energy that is available to do work.
Relative amount of disorganization.
Increasing entropy= less organized= more stable
Energy that moves in waves.
Energy stored in chemical bonds.
The study of energy transformations that occur in a collection of matter.
Other types of Photocynthesis
C3 Photosynthesis, photorespiration, CAM photosynthesis, C4 photosynthesis
-fix CO2 directly to RuBP
-live in moderate climates with sufficient rainfall
During the night: CAM plants fix CO2, for C4 molecules which are stored in large vacuoles
During daylight: NADPH and ATP are available, stomata are closed for water conservation, C4 molecules release CO2 to Calvin Cycle
Fix CO2 to PEP (a C3 molecule)
grasses and sugarcane
how plants live in hot/dry climates. Result is oxaloacetate and this can enter bundle sheath cells, which also have chloroplasts, and start the Calvin Cycle.
-In hot, fry climates
-Stomata much close to avoid too much water loss
-CO2 decreases and O2 increases
-O2 starts combining with RuBP (instead of CO2)
-Leads to the release of CO2
The ability to do work or bring about a change in matter.
Oxidation and Reduction in photosynthesis
primary chlorophyll - absorbs blue, violet, and red. Reflects yellow green (why plants look green).
picks up what chlorophyll A misses.
Noncyclic Electron Flow
Location: thylakoid membrane
Uses photosystem II and photosystem I
Products: ATP and NADPH
Byproduct: oxygen (O2)
Location: stroma of the thylakoid
Begins and ends with RuBP
Requires ATP and NADPH produced in the light dependent reaction
Requires Carbon Dioxide
Every 3 turns produce 1 G3P molecule which can be used to produce glucose and other organic molecules.
3 stages of plants fix carbon dioxide
1. Carbon dioxide Fixation
2. Carbon dioxide reduction
3. RuBP regeneration
Regeneration of RuBP
RuBP is used in CO2 fixation must be replaced. Takes 3 turns of the calvin cycle to get a net gain of 1 G3P because 5 go to recycle RuBP. Five G3P are used to remake three RuBP
A molecule that is chemically able to store more energy and form larger organic molecules such as glucose.
Carbon Dioxide Reduction
A series of reductions occur to the fixed carbon molecule and we end up with a molecule called G3P. Electrons and energy are required for this. Utilized NADPH and some ATP produced in the light reactions.
Carbon Dioxide Fixation
CO2 is attached to 5-carbon RuBP. Results in a 6-Carbon molecule that splits into two 3-carbon molecules. Reaction is accelerated by RuBP carboxylase (Rubisco)
Plants Fix Carbon Dioxide
Utilizes atmospheric carbon dioxide to produce carbohydrates, known as C3 photosynthesis.
Cyclic Electron Flow
Location: thylakoid membrane
Uses: photosystem I only and Electron transport chain
Generates: ATP only
Evolved from ancient bacteria
absorbs blues, greens, and violets. Reflects reds, yellows, and oranges.
a cluster of 200-300 pigment molecules (cholorophyll A and B and carotenoids) located in the thylakoid membrane.
Two types of photosystems
Photosystem II and Photosystem I
Light - Dependent Reactions
The flow of the electron.
Location: thylakoid membrane.
Two possible routes: Noncylic pathway (more common) and cyclic pathway.
A packet of radiant (light) energy. Vary in wavelength and energy. Short wavelength have more energy than photons of longer wavelength.
Calvin Cycle Reactions (light independent reactions)
-take place in the stroma
-CO2 is reduced to a carbohydrate
-reactions use ATP and NADPH to produce carbohydrate
Electron Transport Chain (ETC)
Pumps H+ into the thylakoids. Used to make ATP out of ADP, and NADPH out of NADP.
can produce their own food (their own glucose). Also known as producers.
photosynthesis to produce glucose
take place in the thylakoid, only in the presence of light. Chlorophyll absorbs solar energy. Electrons move down an electron transport chain.
chemical reactions to produce glucose
Equation for photosynthesis
6 H2O + 6 CO2 + radient energy --> C6 H12 O6 + 6 O2
have the job of producing glucose and briefly storing it. (primarily located in mesophyll cells in leaves. Double membrane)
disks made from folds of the inner membrane.
-a process that captures solar energy
-transforms solar energy into chemical energy
-energy ends up stored in a carbohydrate
pores in the bottom of leaves that open and close to allow gasses (O2, CO2, H2O, vapor) into and out of the plant.
Organisms that much consume organic molecules (carbohydrates, lipids, proteins) made by other organisms. Also known as consumers.
Energy of motion
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