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public affairs study guide
Terms in this set (39)
Why do individuals matter to understand the activities and processes of public affairs? We did not cover relevant topics
However, when you see similar questions asking roles of individuals or the importance of studying the public to study public affairs on your exam,
-apply four part model to develop argument
Provide a comprehensive definition of public affairs that synthesis characteristics of public affairs that were addressed in the first lecture. With your definition, provide what your definition means regarding inputs, process, and output and outcomes of engaging in public affairs. [
-how citizens, government public organizations, and their agents
- address public issues,
-to make decisions on resource allocations,
-to influence non-market distribution of goods, services, and income
Identify three types of organizations and briefly explain what they are with one or two sentences.
1)For profit firms -Exist to make profits. Can provide social values, but they may not be their primary reasons nor objectives of being.
2)Non-profit organizations- Organizations that are defined as a charitable organization in the federal tax code. Revenues come from sales, contributions, and subsidies, but any profit made in the organization should be reinvested for their missions.
3)Government -Different from profit and nonprofit organizations. Government has exclusive authority to tax and spend over political jurisdictions [Power to Tax]The function and structure of government and their legitimacy come from the constitution. With revenues coming from the tax, government provides services
What is federalism? How does it work? Why do we have this system of government? Provide yourresponse to each question with two or three sentences.
a.Federalism refers to inter-governmental relationship between national and state governments that is defined by the Constitution.
Separation of power: Power and responsibilities are shared and divided by different levels of government. In each level of government, there are three branches of government where each government body, i.e. legislative, executive, and judicial branch, CHECK AND BALANCE, each other.The U.S. government is designed to separate constitutional, legal, and political powers across different levels of governments, as well as within state and federal governments, so that not one, strong group of people or government donate exercise autocratic powers.
What is a key determinant factor that distinguishes organizations in the public sector from those in the private sector?
Source of funding—taxrevenue
There are two types of motivations that drive the actionsof individuals. What are two types of motivations?
Internal motivations: internally driven self-fulfillment and satisfaction, such as altruism, ethics, other personal values
External motivations: seeking external rewards and incentives such asMoney and power
Institutions shape and constrain an individual's behavior. In this class, we are going to study four types of institution. What are those?
Constitutions--federalism, separation of powers
Governments and public organizations
Markets & Resource Allocations: four types of goods, managing common-pool resources (CPR), and collective action problems
Informal norms and rules: political cultures, social norms & values
Howdoes the political geography affect activities and process of public affairs? Answer with 1-2 sentences.
The Spatial location and electoral districting determine the politicalrepresentation of individuals.Also, geographical location can affecthow people prioritize certain public values and agendaitem.
Explain why the external and internal motivation sits on a continuum of individual motivation, rather than being mutually exclusive concepts. Use the concept of enlightened self-interest to explain this logic.
What the enlightened self-interest means
1) individuals are economically rationale and utility maximizers, but
(2) they make decisions that are benefiting other as well as their own interest.Individuals care for the common goods and well-being, as well as their own self-interest
4)Both motivations sit on a continuum because. Like the existence of enlightened self-interest, motivations are the complex status of mind where we cannot distinguish one from the other. Sometimes, an act of self-interest results in promoting the general well-being of the community. Sometimes, the act of altruism brings fame and financial rewards to people. It means there isa various degree to seek external and internal rewards and individual's actions take between, or taking a balance between seeking utility/self-interest maximization and seeking pro-social, self-fulfillment values.
What is an incentive?Define what the incentive is in the context of public policy and provide examples of the incentive(2-3 short sentences).
Incentives are taxes, subsidies, or regulations that intentionally change the cost or risk of undertaking an activity e.g., examples of tobacco tax to deter smoking
Then, explain, how the public policy regulates individuals' behavior via incentives(2-3 sentences).
It's because we assume individuals are utility maximizer with bounded rationality. It's a purely economic way to define and assume human nature. We call it "economic rationality."
What is civic engagement?
The activity of any individual or group devoted to influencing the civic domain."
(2)Purpose of civic engagement
A primary goal of civic engagement is to make a difference in the civic life of our communities, solve problems, and promote the quality of life.Via political and non-political process, the public as a collective entity, aggregate voices of various groups and individuals to set the public agenda and to solve public problems.
How does public and civic engagement differ from formal political participation?
Civic engagement is a broader concept than formal political participationCivic engagement may entail political activism and participation. However, it also coversmore broad forms and types of engagement and its topic are not limited to formal political topic and agenda.
Identify fivemajor revolutions that built the nation. What were the results ofthese five revolutions?
civil rights movement
cause and effect of continental congress
cause- economic problems with britain
effect- decl of ind,
cause and effect of constitutional convention
cause- lack of central govt
effect- end of articles of confederation, US constitution
Cause and Effect of the Civil War
Cause: Disputes over slavery and slave rights
Effect: Abolition of slavery
cause and effect of womens suffrage
women couldnt vote
now they can 19th amend
cause and effect of civil rights movement
effect civil rights act
why have seperation of powers
Constitutional authority and power of government are divided/separated into three branches: executive, judiciary, and administration.Constitutional power is fragmented and shared by three branches of government. Moreover, theycheck and balance each other toavoid the tyrannyof one strongperson or organization. Key: three branches of government, checkand balance of powers, (to avoid tyranny)
why were founders worried about democracy
tyranny and mobocracy
What is the "institution"? What does the institution do? In other words, how do they constrain behavior?
Institutions are implicit and explicit social relations, such as rules and norms, that constraint individuals' behavior in the given context.
That is, it functions as a guideline for how we behave, and it defines the socially constructed meaning of actions.
What is a constitution?
"A constitution is the set of rules that govern civil society and affect the distribution of resources and power. They can be written, as is the case of the U.S. Constitution, or unwritten, as is true for the United Kingdom."
a problem caused by an agent pursuing his own interests rather than the interests of the principal who hired him
how does an institution change
✓Single-actor: tied to a specific outcome/objective
✓Conflict: Multiple actors pursue conflicting objectives, the resultreflects horse-trading & power
✓Learning: Adapt designs from feedback, experience, copying
✓Competition: Compete for survival and reproduction, changing the mix of rules and behaviors.
What is governance? How is it different from government?
Collective action problem refers to challenges or difficulties to coordinate joint actions of multiple agents to pursue common goals. Defined what the collective irrationality is explain how it is relevant to the collective action problem.
Collective Irrationality: individuals are acting rationally (maximize their utility, know their preference and can order them). However, at the collective level, the result of rational choice can be irrational and does not result in the way to benefit all.
The tragedy of commons refers to "a situation within a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action
Explain why the issue of the property right is related to discuss the collective action problems. Use the concept of Collective irrationality, free-rider's problem, and tragedy of commons to answer this question
The free-rider problem occurs when those who benefit from resources, goods, or services do not pay for them, which results in an underprovision of those goods or services
In this situation, where the property right is absence for public goods or CPR, people tend to exploit the resource to maximize their own utility, without factoring in collective interest and welfares [collective irrationality]. In extreme cases, people may enjoy the use of goods without contributing anything to provide or to manage them, which expedite the exploitation of common or public resources [tragedy of commons].
lack of property right in the CPR is the reason why we see free-rider problem to manage its goods while the collective irrationality is a cause and effect mechanism to explain the free-rider problem.
What is demand curve?
a curve that shows the relationship between the price of a product and the quantity of the product demanded
What is supply curve?
a graph of the relationship between the price of a good and the quantity supplied
Law of Demand
consumers buy more of a good when its price decreases and less when its price increases
Law of Supply
producers offer more of a good as its price increases and less as its price falls
market supply curve
a graph of the quantity supplied of a good by all suppliers at different prices
market demand curve
the demand curve that shows the quantities demanded by everyone who is interested in purchasing the product
Market equilibrium: what is it? What does it mean regarding efficiency in allocating resources?
A situation where the price the equates the quantity supplied and quantity demanded.Market tends to change price until itequates price of supply and demand, if there is no deviation or intervention
b.Market equilibrium means efficiency. There is no waste and society gets all it can from its scare resources
the property of a good whereby a person can be prevented from using it
a good for which consumption by one person does diminish the quantity or quality of consumption by others
5 types of goods
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