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Environmental chapter 2
Terms in this set (32)
What are the 6 steps of the environmental policy process?
Identifying a problem, finding the cause, proposing solutions, getting organized, gaining access to policymakers, and guiding the solution to law
Choose one step of the epp and explain it.
Identify the problem: identifying a problem requires curiosity, observation, recordkeeping, and an awareness of the relationship between people and their environment
People often overlook the connection between their economic activities and the environment. In terms of economic activities, how can people be more mindful of their effect on the environment? Give examples.
People need to consider the external costs of their economic activities and understand the consequences of their choices. This requires changing our behaviors and actions with the understanding that resources are limited. They need to focus their economic activities on conserving resources like wood and clean water, otherwise the supply may not be able to keep up with demand. Since many environmental problems unfold slowly over long periods of time, there could be long term costs for any economic activity. For example, when developing land along a river, people need to recognize the costs in terms of the immediate effect on the local ecosystem as well as the future benefits of such development.
___ is the study of how resources are converted into goods and services and how these goods and services are distributed and used.
A producer will raise the price and supply of a product when the ___.
Demand is high
The sun's energy, fresh water, trees, rocks, and fossil fuels are all examples of ___.
Water pollution from factories in Mexico caused beach closures in CA that hurt the local economy. Bc the pollution did not directly affect the buyers or sellers of factory products, losses due to the pollution are considered ____ costs.
The field of ___ economics applies the principles of Earth's systems, such as balance of inputs and outputs, to economics.
Services provided by Earth's systems are said to have ___ values— values not usually included in the price of a good or service.
A situation in which the free market, operating on its own, does not distribute resources efficiently is called ___.
What is one of the main goals of environmental policy?
Ensure that resources are shared fairly
Producing effective environmental policy requires input from ___.
Ethics, economics, and science
What is one of the main reasons a city like Pittsburgh has strong environmental policies?
It has dealt with the impact of messy environemal cleanups
In the US, laws enacted from the late 1800s to the mid 1900s reflected the understanding that ___.
The West's natural resources could be used up and required legal protection
In the US, during the 1960s and 1970s, what was one of the events that triggered increased awareness of environmental problems?
The publication of Silent Spring by Rachel Carson
Which period of US environmental policy created the Wilderness Act and the Soil Conservation and Domestic Allotment Act?
The second period (late 1800s to mid 1900s)
The Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) process requires government agencies and businesses that contract with them to __.
Evaluate the impact on the environemnt before proceeding with a project
How did US environmental policy shift in the 1980s?
A backlash led to efforts to weaken federal environmental laws
Which statement best describes the current era of environmental policy in the US?
The focus has explanded from just cleaning up pollution to achieving sustainability
Air pollutants that are emitted in one country may travel on wind currents far across the globe and affect other countries. This is an example of a what?
Greenpeace, Population Connection, and Conservation International are examples of __.
Non-governmental organizations (NGOs)
One of the criticisms of the World Bank is that it
Doesn't always fund projects that are environmentally sustainable
What is a criticism or weakness of the command-and-control approach to environmental policy?
Companies competing in a free market will produce better solutions at lower cost than the government can
Why are government subsidies often controversial in the US?
Enormous subsidies are provided for nonrenewable fossil fuels
A factory owner has permits to release 10 units of a certain pollutant, but only needs to release 5 units, so the owner sells the permits for the extra 5 units to a factory that releases more pollution than allowed. This is an example of __.
Which step of the environmental policy process usually requires the use of science?
Pinpointing causes of the problem
Lobbying and making campaign contributions are ways to
Gain access to environmental policymakers
What are the 3 types of economies?
Centrally planned, free market, and mixed economy
The government decided what is made, how much is made, and who gets what
Centrally planned economy
Individuals decide what is made, how much, and who
Both government and individuals play roles, almost all modern economies are mixed
International groups can influence behavior of countries by:
Providing funding, withholding funding, applying peer pressure, and directing media attention to a problem
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
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