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TE 150 Exam 1
Terms in this set (14)
4 types of reinforcement schedules
continuous reinforcement schedule
presenting a reinforcer after every appropriate response
buying candy from vending machine
reinforcer after some but not all responses
length of time between reinforcers
based on # of responses between reinforcers
You are teaching third grade students, and you are preparing a lesson about the features of informational text. To make sure the lesson will be effective, you follow the guidelines for helping students understand and remember.
Describe what you will do to gain students' attention with four approaches.
1. hand signals, visual and auditory signals
2. reach out rather than call out
3. purpose of lesson or assignment is clear to students
4.ask questions and provide frames for answering
Stephen listened to the agent explain the process of filing a claim with the company, getting an estimate on the damage, and getting his car repaired. He counted about six steps as the agent talked. He made mental notes about the steps he needed to follow and repeated them to the agent. Now he is trying to keep these steps in his working memory as he drives his damaged car home. He doesn't have his phone or other electronics for making notes and he's tight on time.
Describe two different procedures Stephen might use to keep the information activated in his working memory. Explain pros and cons of each strategy.
1. Stephen can repeat these 6 steps over and over during his drive home. (maintenance rehearsal) Pro: can remember something indefinitely
Con: if you're trying to remember something and then forget quickly, may remember wrong
2. he could chunk this information into the 6 steps in order to remember the notes that he made about each step
pro: able to remember larger amounts of things with chunking
con: may be harder to remember small details
Morgandi has been helping her mother cook since she was a preschooler. In cooking, she has learned to use various measuring tools. She has doubled recipes and halved recipes using measuring cups and spoons and has learned to use fractions in this context. Her twin brother Eric is just as smart as Morgandi, but he has never used fractions. Yesterday, the teacher started the unit about fractions in math class.
Compare the learning process for Morgandi and Eric during the unit on fractions in math class.
Morgandi was actively learning about fractions so she was practicing fractions while learning them. For Eric, he is probably learning about fractions for the first time so it will take time and practice for him to grasp the concept. If he is learning cognitively, he will need to actively practice fractions, for example, helping their mother cook and using measuring tools.
Ms. Garza wants her students to use metacognitive skills to guide their reading and inquiry. She is beginning a unit in social studies about the industrial revolution and plans to introduce the lesson with a KWL chart. Describe how she might effectively use a KWL system to encourage students to use metacognitive skills.
K What do I already know about this subject?
W What do I want to know?
L At the end of the reading or inquiry, what did I learn?
Allows student to reflect on their knowledge and become active in their learning, combining declarative knowledge, procedural knowledge, and self-regulatory knowledge
Carlos is trying to complete a math assignment involving word problems. He still doesn't understand when to add, when to subtract, and when to do both. Mrs. Tam wants to teach in ways that help Carlos and other students develop robust knowledge in this level of math. In addition to providing practice opportunities, what strategies might she use to support the development of robust knowledge? Explain.
practice - procedural, going over problems to learn a concept
worked examples - allows students to work through example and see what they need to do
analogies - map similarities in concepts, allows students to transfer what they know to what they need to learn
self-explanations - encourages connections and coherence, better than listening to a teacher
Ms. Alice is a history teacher at a high school, and her students are struggling to remember important dates and important people in history. She wants to make sure that she is teaching so that her students can easily retrieve this information. What are two methods Ms. Alice could use to improve retrieval in her students?
concept map, explaining to friend, listing key ideas, teaching another student, KWL worksheet, self-test, quizzes (even ungraded)
anything that retrieves info from memory rather than restudying or rereading
In the second grade, Danielle was identified as a student with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Throughout her elementary school years, she had such a busy brain that she failed to learn some of the strategies that have become automatic for her friends. Now Danielle is in high school and has made up her mind to be a medical doctor. She realizes some of the demands of the profession because her mom is a doctor. Danielle is serious about learning and determined to teach herself some learning strategies to improve her academic achievement.
Identify at least one learning strategy that will transfer to many of the subjects Danielle
will take in high school and college.
Describe the stages in developing strategic transfer that she will experience as she teaches herself the strategy and develops the ability to transfer its use to new learning situations.
practice all subjects and apply what she's learned in real situation, maybe intern or volunteer at hospital
acquisition- learn new info and practice it
retention- further practice
transfer- applying previous strategy to new problems
Many constructivist approaches to learning recommend five conditions for learning. In light of these five conditions, contrast traditional classroom teaching with teaching based on these constructivist conditions.
1. Embed learning in complex, realistic, and relevant learning environments.
C: fuzzy ill structured problems v T: strict straightforward problems
2. Provide for social negotiation and shared responsibility as a part of learning.
shared meaning and discussion with others v individual work
3. Support multiple perspectives, and use multiple representations of content.
learn "big ideas" and revisit them later v learning and not going back over that learned material
4. Nurture self-awareness and an understanding that knowledge is constructed.
aware of own role in learning and respecting others v not knowing about others backgrounds and differences
5. Encourage ownership in learning.
students-centered learning, guided v teacher focused
Mr. Holland claims to use cooperative learning. He groups students, gives them math assignments in the book, and allows them to decide whether they work with group members or work independently. Mr. Holland needs your help to understand true cooperative learning and revise his practice to achieve it.
Describe how Mr. Holland should set up his groups for cooperative learning.
What does Mr. Holland need to do to turn his math assignments into true cooperative learning?
Be sure to include all five elements of cooperative learning in your answer.
Experts have deep conceptual knowledge
Learning comes from the learner.
Schools must create effective learning environments.
Prior knowledge and beliefs are key.
Reflection is necessary to develop deep conceptual knowledge.
Mr. Holland needs to set up groups that give students room to discuss previous knowledge and grow that knowledge through guided questions and student-based learning. He needs to give students time to reflect on what they've learned through different methods such as individual research and presenting to their group what they've learned.
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