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APEC Chapter 15 Vocabulary
Terms in this set (62)
the 16th and 17th centuries saw an increase of these trials, with the accused often confessing after intense torture; religious uncertainties and social and economic turmoil were contributing factors to the hysteria.
the Thirty Years' War
Europe-wide conflict that began with religious division in the Holy Roman Empire; later, it became clear that secular, dynastic-nationalist considerations were more important.
Lutheran King of Sweden who came to the aid of German Lutherans during the Thirty Years' War; killed during the Battle of Lutzen, his troops were forced to retreat from southern Germany, but continued to fight in the war; developed the first standing army of conscripts.
Peace of Westphalia, 1648
treaty ending the Thirty Years' War in Germany; ensured that all German states were free to determine their own religion and made it clear that religion and politics were separate; the three hundred states of the Holy Roman Empire were recognized as independent and the pope was completely ignored in the negotiations.
compulsory enlistment in national military service; the military revolution of the 17th century included the use of new weaponry, better discipline, and coordinated tactics, which required a well-trained standing army; this policy allowed states to develop maintain such a force.
A permanent, professional army; necessitated by the military revolution of the 17th century, which required well-trained troops; as these armies grew, the economic burden on states increased and large bureaucracies were created to manage them.
form of government in which the sovereign power or ultimate authority rests in the hands of a monarch who claimed to rule by divine right, and was therefore responsible only to God.
Bishop Jacques Bossuet
French theologian and preacher who argued that government was divinely ordained so that humans could live in an organized society; kings received their power from God, so their power was absolute; wrote about this theory of divine-right monarchy in "Politics Drawn from the Very Words of Scripture".
the doctrine that kings and queens have a God-given right to rule and that rebellion against them is a sin. This belief was common through the seventeenth century and was urged by such kings as Louis XIV of France.
Chief minister of Louis XIII; initiated policies to strengthen the power of the monarchy: eliminated the political and military rights of the Huguenots, developed a network of spies to crush plots by the nobles, and sent royal officials (intendants) to the provinces to carry out government orders; however, French debt was greatly increased Thirty Years' War.
Chief minister of Louis XIII and Louis XIV who succeeded Richelieu; continued to carry out Richelieu's policies; crushed the Fronde revolts; when he died, Louis XIV took over supreme power.
Royal French officials sent to the provinces to carry out government orders; came into conflict with provincial governors, but were mostly victorious, strengthening the power of the central government.
French revolt carried out by both nobles who were resented the centralization of power by the crown and the French masses who, along with the Parlement of Paris, were angered by increased taxes; ended in compromise; a second revolt, led by nobles who wanted to overthrow Cardinal Mazarin, was crushed.
French monarch who was determined to establish a strong absolute monarchy; created a grand court at Versailles, which became the model for all monarchies in Europe; also known as the "Sun King."
Edict of Fontainebleau
Decree issued by Louis XIV that revoked the Edict of Nantes and provided for the destruction of Huguenot churches and schools; Louis XIV believed in the motto "One king, one law, one faith" and felt the existence of the Protestant in France undermined his supreme authority
Enormous royal residence established by Louis XIV; a symbol of the French absolutist state and the power of the king; housed thousands of nobles who were involved in court life, but excluded from any real power; the largest royal estate in Europe, it set a standard for other European monarchs to aspire to.
French financial minister under Louis XIV; sought to increase the wealth and power of France through mercantilism, increasing and improving French manufactured goods.
the Four Wars of Louis XIV
Wars waged by Louis the XIV to expand the power and prestige of France; each offensive was met by a coalition of European states that kept French gains minimal compared to the amount of blood spilled and capital spent; these wars included an invasion of the Spanish Netherlands, an attack on the Holy Roman Empire, the War of the League of Augsburg, and the War of Spanish Succession.
Peace of Utrecht
Agreement ending the War of Spanish Succession; confirmed Philip V (grandson of Louis XIV) as king of Spain but also affirmed that the thrones of Spain and France were to be kept separate; Austria, Brandenburg-Prussia and England gained territories in Europe and America.
Emerged as a powerful German state after the Peace of Westphalia; ruled by Frederick William the Great Elector, of the Hohenzollern dynasty, whose policies established this state as a great European power in the 17th century.
Frederick William the Great Elector
Ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia whose policies laid the groundwork for a strong Prussian state; increased the size and efficiency of the army, raised taxes and created a bureaucracy to collect them, and gained the support of the landed aristocracy.
Dynasty who ruled Brandenburg-Prussia; initially ruled Brandenburg, but inherited Prussia and lands in the German Rhine valley.
Members of the Prussian landed aristocracy; in return for allowing Fredrick William full control of the administration of the government, they were given almost unlimited power over their peasants, exemption from taxes, and the highest ranks in the army and military bureaucracy.
Treaty of Karlowitz
Agreement signed after Austria's defeat of invading Ottoman forces; gave Austria control of Hungary, Transylvania, Croatia, and Slovenia, thus establishing an Austrian empire.
Russian dynasty established in the 17th century.
Russian society was dominated by an upper class of landed aristocracy who were able to bind their peasants to the land during the 17th century; subsequent peasant revolts led to unsettled conditions in Russia.
Peter the Great
Russian tsar who was determined to modernize and westernize Russia, especially in technical skills, and to create a strong army and navy in order to make Russia a great power; reorganized the central government, conscripted peasants, adopted mercantilist policies, and sought control of the Russian Orthodox church; his policies greatly oppressed the peasant class.
New capital city constructed by Peter the Great in the new lands he acquired in the Baltic during the Great Northern War; his "window to the west" and a symbol that Russia was looking westward.
Great Northern War
Conflict initiated when Russia attacked Sweden, who controlled the Baltic coast desired by Peter the Great; Russia was ultimately successful, acquiring Estonia, Livonia, and Karelia and emerging as a great European state, while Sweden was reduced to a second-rate power.
Vienna and the Ottoman Empire
New leadership in this empire laid siege to this Austrian city; a coalition of Austrians, Poles, Bavarians, and Saxons pushed them out through Hungary and, while they maintained the core of their empire, were never again a threat to Europe.
Legislative body dominated by landowners; it was this assembly which elected the king, reducing and limiting the power of the monarchy; elected kings were forced to agree to share power with the assembly; assembly meeting could be stopped by a single dissenting member, leading to governmental chaos.
the House of Orange
Dutch dynasty which held power in most provinces; favored the development of a centralized government, but were opposed by the representative assembly; although a brief monarchical regime was established during wartime, republican forces soon gained control.
Financial and commercial capital of Europe in the 17th century; city government was controlled by prosperous merchants and manufacturers, many of whom were Calvinists who adopted a simple lifestyle.
First Stuart monarch in England; asserted the divine right of kings, angering Parliament who had become accustomed to shared power under the Tudors, and alienated the Puritans, many of whom were members of the House of Commons, by refusing to meet their demands about church administration.
English king who angered Parliament by reneging on an agreement limiting his power and upset Puritans by attempting to introduce more ritual into the Anglican church; captured during the English Civil War, he attempted to seek help from Scotland but was charged with treason and beheaded.
Petition of Right
Legislation passed by English Parliament prohibiting taxation by the king without Parliament's consent, arbitrary imprisonment, quartering of soldiers, and martial law during peacetime; Charles I reneged on his agreement to accept it and decided not to summon Parliament to meet, instead finding ways to collect taxes without the cooperation of Parliament.
Short and Long Parliaments
Sessions of English Parliament called by King Charles I after eleven years of personal rule; took a series of steps that placed severe limitations on royal authority; Charles was forced to call Parliament in order to raise funds to defend himself against the Scots, who were angry over religious issues.
English Civil War
Conflict between English Parliament and King Charles I; in the initial phase, Parliament and its Puritan-led New Model Army, led by Oliver Cromwell, captured King Charles I; when he attempted to flee to Scotland, a second phase ensued and the king was tried for treason and beheaded.
Devout Puritan who led the New Model Army in the English Civil War and had Charles I beheaded and Parliament purged, and then later dismissed; served as Lord Protector in the Commonwealth, where he compelled to use military force to maintain his rule; faced uprisings in both Ireland and Scotland; after his death, England reestablished the monarchy.
English radical group who advocated freedom of speech and religion, a democratic republic, expanded voting rights, annual Parliaments, women's equality, and government welfare programs; crushed by Cromwell by force.
Established after the execution of Charles I and the abolition of the House of Lords by Cromwell and the Rump Parliament.
After the death of Oliver Cromwell, the English monarchy was reestablished with Charles II, the son exiled son of Charles I; however, Parliament kept much of the power in had won during the English Civil War and Revolution.
English Protestants inspired by Calvinist theology who wished to remove all traces of Catholicism in the Anglican church; opposed Charles I's religious policies and led the opposition to the king during the English Civil War.
Legislation passed by Parliament that specified that only Anglicans could hold military and civil offices; a response to Charles I's attempt to suspend the laws passed against Catholics and Puritans.
Open and devout Catholic who succeeded Charles II; named Catholics to high positions and suspended all laws barring Catholics and Dissenters from office.
A bloodless revolution that marked the end of the struggle between the king and Parliament in England; by deposing James II and confirming William and Mary as monarchs, Parliament had negated the divine-right theory of kingship and asserted its right to participate in government through the Bill of Rights, paving the way to constitutional monarchy.
William and Mary
Protestant daughter of King James II and her husband who came to power in the Glorious Revolution; raised an army and, with the encouragement of English nobles, invaded England while Catholic James II fled to France with his infant son, the true heir to the English throne; offered the monarchy by Parliament, and agreed to certain provisions and a Bill of Rights that limited their rights.
English political thinker who claimed that humans were not guided by reason and morals, but by animalistic instincts and self-preservation; asserted the need for an absolute ruler with unlimited power, in order to save people from destroying one another; if subjects rebelled, they must be suppressed.
English political thinker that believed humans had certain unalienable rights, to life, liberty, and property; in order to safeguard these rights, a government must be established by the people; if the government failed to protect the rights of the people, the people could form a new government.
the English Bill of Rights
Declaration of rights that affirmed Parliament's rights and limited the power of the monarchy, laying the foundation for a constitutional monarchy in England; passed during the Glorious Revolution and accepted by William and Mary.
16th century artistic movement in Europe that deliberately broke down the High Renaissance principles of balance, harmony, and moderation; artists distorted the rules of proportion and infused their work with a strong emotional atmosphere filled with anxiety and suffering.
Mannerist painter whose use of contorted figures, unusual colors, and turbulent backgrounds project intense emotion and suffering; born in Crete, he trained in Italy, then worked as a church painter in Spain.
Italian Baroque architect and sculptor who completed the Saint Peter's Basilica at the Vatican; also known for "The Ecstasy of Saint Theresa", his most important sculpture.
Italian female artist; the first woman to be elected to the Florentine Academy of Design; best known for a series of paintings of heroines from the Old Testament.
17th century artistic movement that used dramatic effects to arouse the emotions and reflected the search for power that was a large part of the era; brought together the classical ideals of Renaissance art with the spiritual feelings of the religious revival of the 16th century.
17th century artistic movement that rejected the Baroque style as overly showy and impassioned; emphasized clarity, simplicity, balance, and harmony of design; reflected the shift in French society from chaos to order; during this period, France replaced Italy as the cultural center of Europe.
Rembrandt van Rijn
Dutch artist who painted opulent portraits and colorful, grandiose scenes; prolific and successful, commissioned by wealthy patricians and burghers.
English playwright during the reign of Queen Elizabeth I; recognized as a universal genius with incredible insight into human psychology
Lope de Vega
Spanish playwright; wrote fifteen hundred plays that have been characterized as witty, action-packed, and realistic; believed the foremost duty of the playwright was to please his audience.
French playwright who derived many of the themes and plots for his tragedies from Greek and Roman sources; best known for "Phedre" and "Hippolytus."
French playwright who wrote comedies that satirized the religious and social world of his time, including "Tartuffe", which was banned by the Paris clergy; enjoyed the patronage of Louis XIV.
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