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Overselectivity refers to
the tendency to focus on a minute feature of an object or person rather than the whole
What r 3 characteristics of autism under IDEA
communication deficits, cognitive deficits, social deficits
What r 3 strategies based on applied behavior analysis?
facilitated communication; naturalistic language strategies; self management tactics
What r 3 caracterstics of applied behavior analysis(ABA)
individualized; designed for maximum effectiveness;data-based evaluations and decision making
Children who meet some, but not all, of the qualitative or quantitative criteria for autism are often diagnosed as having
What r 3 examples of individuals who have savant syndrome?
~Though he has autism, a man has normal intellectual function
~A woman waves her hands in the air stereotypically
~A student recites a television commercial he saw a few days ago
What has scientifically validated research support?
applied behavior analysis; secretin therapy; facilitated communication
Though the precise cause of autism is unknown, what is the clearest link?
Joint attention refers to
~interaction w/in the same frame of reference
~an important factor in language nd social development
~a child's ability to look where someone else is looking
What are some characteristics or Rett's disorder?
~primarily affects girls
~severe impairment in language and cognitive abilities
~a distinct neurological condition that begins between 5 and 30 months of age
What lacks scientific support as it pertains to the education of children w/ autism?
naturalistic language strategies
List 3 arguements for placing a child w/ autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the gen ed classroom
~that placement can improve social interaction
~its the best placement for peer mediated intervention to occur
~that placement helps acceptance into peer groups
List some true statements regarding Lovaas' (1987)
~it has not been successfully replicated
~some of the controllable factors to improve functioning have been identified
~the results offer hope for many parents and teachers
List 3 things that have been suggested as the cause of increasing prevalence of autism
~avalability of services under IDEA has increased advocacy
~increased awareness of the disorder has improved identification
~there is an actual increase in the true incidence of autism
what r 3 early warning signs of autism?
lack of vocabulary development; not responding to name; obsessive, unusual interest in one object
List 3 separate behaviors in children that depicts a sensory deficit of a child w/ autism
~sara does not seem to perceive that her mother is standing right before her
~drake reacts frantically when cellophane is softly crinkled across the room
~tom does not react to a fire alarm going off nearby
what is the average age of a child when parents first recognize someithing is wrong and the child is subsequently diagnosed w/ autism spectrum disorder?
5 yrs old
the process by which a communication partner provides physical support to assist an individual who cannot speak or whose speechh is limited is known as
in Lovaas' study, the children who initially had made significant improvements n what?
none; lovaas never addressed that issue
Give an example of a behavior trap for students w/ ASD
Jordash loves stickers. He collects and organizes them. His teacher uses them as a basis for as many assignments as she can. Math he adds and subtracts them; science he categorizes his animal stickers; social studies he picks out culturally significant ones and explains their meanings to the class; language arts he started a column about hobbies in the school newspaper, which his teacher counts towards class assignments
List a true statement of ABA
teaching methods based on ABA are effective for students w/ and w/out disabilities
what exemplifies echolalia?
verbatim repetitions of what people have said or non contextual speech phrases w/out communicative purpose
Applied behavior analysis (ABA)
the science in which tactics derived from the principles of behavior are applied systematically to improve socially significant behavior and experimentation is used to identify the variables responsible for behavior change
developmental disorder characterized by normal cognitive and language development w/ impairments in all social areas, repetitive and sterotyped behaviors,preoccupation w/ atypical activities or items, pedantic speech patterns, and motor clumsiness; included in autism spectrum disorders
autism spectrum disorders (ASD)
group of five related developmental disorders that share common core deficits or difficulties in social relationships, communication, and ritualistic behaviors; differentiated from one another primarily by the age of onset and severity of various symptoms; includes autistic disorder, Asperger syndrome, Rett syndrome, childhood disintegrative disorder and pervasive developmental disorder not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
a pervasive developmental disorder marked by 3 defining features w/ onset before age 3: a) impairment of social interaction b) impairment of communication c) restricted, repetitive, and stereotyped pattern of behavior, interests, and activities
Individual who exhibits extraordinary ability in a specific area such as memorization, mathematical calculations, or musical ability while functioning at the mental retardation level in all other areas; very rare
An interrelated set of contingencies of reinforcement that can be especially powerful, producing substantial and long lasting behavior changes. Effective behavior traps include four essential features:
a) they are "baited" w/ virtually irresistible reinforcers that "lure" the student to the trap
b)only a low effort response already in the students repertoire is necessary to enter the trap
c) once inside the trap, the student is motivated by interrelated contengencies of reinforcement to acquire, extend, and maintain targeted academic and/or social skills
d) they can remain effective for a long time because students show few, if any, satiation effects
childhood disintergrative disorder
shares behavioral characteristics w/ autistic disorder, but does not begin until after age 2 and sometimes not until age 10; medical complications are common; one type of autism spectrum disorder
discrete trial training (DIT)
Instructional format involving a series of three-part trials:
a) an antecedent stimulus (ie flashcards)
b) student response to the stimulus
c) feedback (reinforcement for a correct response; ignoring or correcting an incorrect response; and providing a response prompt or ignoring nonresponses)
double blind, placebo controlled study
Procedure used to control for expectancy effects by subjects and bias by researchers in studies evaluating the effects of a treatment or intervention. Some subjects receive the actual treatment being tested: others receive a placebo designed to appear like the actual treatment; subjects do not know whether they are receiving the real treatment or a placebo; the researchers do not know which subjects received the treatment
the repetition of what other people have said as if echoing them; characteristic of some children w/ delayed development, autism, and communication disorders
a type of augmentative communication in which a "facilitatior" provides assistance to someoen in typeing or pointing to vocabulary symbols; typically involves an alphanumeric keyboard on which the user types out a message one letter at a time. To date, research designed to validate FC has repeatedly demonstrated either facilitator influence (correct or meaning ful language is produced only when the facilitator "knows" what should be communicated) or no unexpected language competence compared to the participants measured IQ or a standard language assessment
a social communicaiton skill in which two people interact w/ their shared enviornment in the same frame of reference. Joint attention is evident when a child looks where someoen else is looking or turns head or eyes in tthe direction someone is pointing
pervasive developmental disorders--not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS)
children who meet some but not all of the criteria for autistic disorder are often diagnosed as having PDD NOS; included in the autism spectrum disorders
a form of self injurious behavior in which the person ingests nonnutritive substances; exhibited by some persons w/ moderate and severe mental retardation
neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood characterized by normal early development followed by loss of purposeful use of the hands, distinctive hand movements, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, and mental retardation; affects females almost exclusively; included in autism spectrum disorders
anintervention for teaching social skills that uses individualized stories usually constructed w/ one sentence per page accompanied by photographs or simple line drawings depicting a social situation from the viewpoint of the student. Often used w/ children w/ autism spectrum disordrs to decrease anxiety about the situation, help the child learn relevant social cues and the expected behaviors, explain how to behave to achieve desired outcomes from the situation, and help understand the event from teh perspective of others
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