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Brain & Behavior
Terms in this set (87)
A point of light located in the upper left of the visual field is projected to the _______ part of the retina.
Which of the following body parts are not highly represented on the sensory homunculus?
Cones are most densely concentrated in which part of the human retina?
The representation of the human body in the somatosensory cortex especially emphasizes the _______
Hands & Lips
The dorsal stream system of visual processing is said to specialize in processing information about ______
Plasticity of somatosensory cortical maps is evident following:
discrimination training, surgical removal of a finger & severing of a peripheral nerve.
There are about _______ million cones in the human eye.
The bipolar cells of the retina have contacts with the _______ cells.
ganglion, amacrine and receptor
Sodium channels on pacinian corpuscles in the skin are opened by:
mechanical pressure (e.g. a finger pressing down on the skin) which stretches carbohydrate chains to physically open the channels
Cortical area V5 has many cells that respond preferentially to
The generator potential produced by a Pacinian corpuscle in response to mechanical stimulation is
proportional to stimulus intensity.
Frequency of sound is measured in
The tiny bones of the middle ear are collectively known as the
The term "adequate stimulus" refers to
the type of stimulus for which a given sensory system is particularly adapted.
Wavelengths of light are measured in
When light hits a rod and bleaches (breaks down) rhodopsin:
sodium channels close and glutamate is blocked.
The _______ is (are) primarily responsible for refracting light to form the image on the retina.
Vibrations in the tympanic membrane occur as a direct result of:
sound waves from the ear canal vibrating the tympanic membrane
Sensory transduction is the process of
converting energy into a change in membrane potential.
The cortical region that is especially rich in color-sensitive cells is
The process that acts to enhance the boundaries of visual objects is called
The progressive loss of sensitivity of a sensory receptor as a consequence of sustained stimulation is known as
Although there is not a cone for the perception of yellow in the retina, we are able to see yellow because:
both the red and green cones excite the yellow-blue ganglion cell
Several regions of the auditory cortex show _______ mapping.
Which of the following skin receptors are especially sensitive to stretching of the skin?
An on-center/off-surround cell responds most strongly when
the entire center is illuminated.
The left visual field is projected to
the right hemisphere.
A symptom of aphasia called "paraphasia" is characterized by
the substitution of words by sounds, phonemes, or unintended words.
Broca's aphasia is usually associated with lesions of
the left inferior frontal region.
In most split-brain humans, words presented to the left visual field
cannot be described verbally.
Phonemes are the
basic sounds of a language.
In patients with aphasia, the greatest amount of language recovery is likely to be achieved _______ after the episode of brain damage.
within 3 months
The Wada test involves
injection of sodium amytal into the carotid artery.
At times, aphasic patients may produce nonsensical or word substitutions called
Which of the following is not a test/technique that can be used to determine language lateralization?
Split-brain patients can easily read and verbally communicate words projected to
the right visual field.
The essential component of the Wada test is
a short-acting anesthetic injected into the carotid artery.
A patient who produces seemingly fluent but largely unintelligible speech and has poor comprehension of verbal material is most likely suffering from _______ aphasia.
A large frontal lesion in the left hemisphere can produce _______ aphasia.
What would be your diagnosis if a patient presented with (showed) fluent speech, used neologisms, followed social conventions, and was unaware of their speech impairment?
Humans with sleep apnea show
frequent arousals from sleep.
The pattern of sleep in elderly humans is characterized by increases in
Attacks of cataplexy can be triggered in people who suffer from this condition by:
laughing, becoming angry & engaging in sexual activity
The usual duration of the typical human repeating sleep cycle is
90 to 110 minutes.
REM sleep is associated with all of the following, except ___________.
rapid eye movement
Nightly episodes of dreaming are most often associated with
Nightmares are associated with
Which of the following animals does not appear to experience REM sleep?
Stages 3 and 4 SWS are especially prominent during _______ of a night's sleep.
sleep periods during the initial half
Experimental evidence suggests that the biological role of dreaming during REM sleep may be related to the
consolidation of new learning.
The cells of the raphe nucleus have high levels of
In humans, somnambulism usually occurs during
stage 3 or 4 SWS.
Stage 4 of human SWS is characterized by
delta waves half of the time.
According to the hypothetical sleep/wake model, the onset of sleep would be characterized by the release of high levels of ___________ from the ____________.
serotonin: raphe nucleus
After a day of intensive studying for an exam, a student's sleep during the following night would most likely contain
more REM sleep than usual.
Sleep spindles are seen in the EEG records of people who are in
stage 2 SWS.
Night terrors are associated with
stages 3 and 4 SWS.
The attacks of sleep that occur in narcolepsy are characterized by
the immediate onset of REM.
Slow, large-amplitude waves are seen in the EEG records of people who are in
stage 3 or 4 SWS.
1. What are the steps involved in the descending analgesic circuit (think about each step in terms of excitation and inhibition). *What neurotransmitters are involved and what brain areas are involved?
• Output of the PAG excites serotonergic neurons of
the raphe nucleus (+)
• Project down the dorsal column of the spinal cord
• Excites interneurons that block incoming pain
signals in the dorsal horn (+ x - = -)
* Block pain signal = don't feel pain
1B.) Do Opiates excite or inhibit the activity of inhibitory interneurons in the PAG if the result is an increase of the activity of neurons whose axons descend to the raphe nucleus?
Opiates inhibit activity of inhibitory interneurons
in PAG (- x - = +)
What is the language of the nervous system and how is sensory information transformed into this language?
Neurons carry electrical messges
4. What are the different types of receptor cells found in the somatosensory system and what type of information are they processing (touch, temperature, pain, etc.)?
Free nerve endings - simplest
Pacinian corpuscles - vibrations
Merkel's disc - detects light touch; skin indentation
Mileisner's corpuscles - detect light touch; finger toungue lips
Ruffini endings - detect stretching of skin
5. Somatosensory pathways: what are they called and what type of information do they process (which receptor cells are associated with each pathway)?
Lemniscal (dorsal column medial lemniscus) - Touch and Pressure
Spinothalamic (anterolateral) - Pain & Temperature
6. How is the primary somatosensory cortex, S1, organized (how is the body represented, etc.)? Where is it located in the brain?
S1 is in the post-central gyrus, corresponding to Parietial Lobe areas. S1 is organized somatotopically: there is a relation between the location of a single neuron in S1 and the position of its receptive field on the surface of the skin
7. Be able to identify the major anatomical features of the outer, middle, and inner ear (example, the cochlea is the snail-shaped structure located in the inner ear, the tympanic membrane, or eardrum is part of the outer ear). *May show up in a matching scenario -structure/function.
External ear: captures sound waves External ear: captures sound waves; - Pinna, ear canal
Middle ear: cavity between tympanic membrane and cochlea; concentrates sound energies; - Tympanic membrane: eardrum - Ossicles: three small bones that transmit sound across the middle ear
-Incus (anvil) malleus (hammer) Incus (anvil), malleus (hammer), stapes (stirrup)
- Oval window: opening from
middle to inner ear
Inner ear: converts vibrational energy into waves of fluid (transduction); - Cochlea: snail-shaped fluid filled structure
• contains primary receptor cells
- Round window: membrane separating cochlear duct from
middle-ear cavity (moveable)
-Organ of Corti: contains hair cells Organ of Corti: contains hair cells - Basilar membrane: contains principal structures involved in auditory transduction auditory transduction
- Tectorial membrane: structure in cochlear duct (atop of the organ of Corti
8. Describe the transduction process in the auditory system (where is this occurring and what is happening)
Sound waves travel down the auditory canal which causes tympanic membrane to vibrate.
• Vibrations are transferred to ossicles
- Malleus, incus, and stapes
• Vibration of stapes triggers vibrations of oval window
•Transfers vibrations to the fluid of the Transfers vibrations to the fluid of the cochlea (generator potential)
9. What are the major structures involved in the auditory pathway?
-First site of the neuronal processing of the newly converted "digital" data from the inner ear.
-The Trapezoid body is a bundle of decussating fibers in the ventral pons that carry information used for binaural computations in the brainstem.
Superior olivary complex
-Located in the pons, and receives projections predominantly from the ventral cochlear nucleus, although the dorsal cochlear nucleus projects there as well, via the ventral acoustic stria. Within the superior olivary complex lies the lateral superior olive (LSO) and the medial superior olive (MSO).
-A tract of axons in the brainstem that carries information about sound from the cochlear nucleus to various brainstem nuclei and ultimately the contralateral inferior colliculus of the midbrain.
-The IC are located just below the visual processing centers known as the superior colliculi. The central nucleus of the IC is a nearly obligatory relay in the ascending auditory system, and most likely acts to integrate information (specifically regarding sound source localization from the superior olivary complex and dorsal cochlear nucleus) before sending it to the thalamus and cortex.
Medial geniculate nucleus
-The medial geniculate nucleus is part of the thalamic relay system.
Primary auditory cortex
-The primary auditory cortex is the first region of cerebral cortex to receive auditory input.
Perception of sound is associated with the left posterior superior temporal gyrus (STG). The superior temporal gyrus contains several important structures of the brain marking the location of the primary auditory cortex, the cortical region responsible for the sensation of basic characteristics of sound such as pitch and rhythm.
10. How is auditory information represented in the primary auditory cortex?
This sound information travels down the vestibulocochlear nerve, through intermediate stations such as the cochlear nuclei and superior olivary complex of the brainstem and the inferior colliculus of the midbrain, being further processed at each waypoint. The information eventually reaches the thalamus, and from there it is relayed to the cortex. In the human brain, the primary auditory cortex is located in the temporal lobe.
It is located bilaterally, roughly at the upper sides of the temporal lobes - in humans on the superior temporal plane, within the lateral fissure. Divided into a primary (AI), secondary (AII) and further
11. Be able to identify the major anatomical features of the eye (may show up in a matching scenario -structure/function).
• Cornea: outer layer of tissue
• Iris: pigment
• Lens: focuses light
• Sclera: white of eye
• Retina: contains photoreceptors - Where you actually see
• Fovea: all cones, specialized for acute, detailed vision
12. What are some differences between rods and cones (what type of vision are each of these involved in, how distributed, #, etc.)?
- High acuity
- Color vision
- Around 4 million
• Scotopic: Rods
- Lower acuity
- Peripheral Vision
- Dim light
13. What are the retinal layers of the eye and what are the basic steps involved in the transduction process?
Photoreceptors receive information in photons
- Produce graded potentials or IPSP's (incapable of firing action potentials)
- Pass IPSP to bipolar cells
•Bipolar cells fire EPSP's
• Once bipolar fires EPSP and hits the ganglion cell an AP will travel down the axon
• --> optic nerve--> brain
14. What happens when light hits a rod and bleaches (breaks down) rhodopsin?
Rhodopsin = photochemical pigment composed of Retinal (made in retina from Vitamin A) and Opsin (protein)
•Bleaches immediately upon exposure to white light.
•Opsin and Vitamin A combine to regenerate rhodopsin (builds up = dark adaptation)
•Light hits a rod = rhodopsin is bleached, Na+ channels close and glutamate release is blocked
* Like an IPSP occurs when excited by light
16. What areas are involved in visual processing and what are the primary and secondary pathways?
17. What is blindsight and how is it possible?
Gap in the receptor layer; no photoreceptors. The brain fills in the gap (saccadic eye movement)
18. What is the dorsal and ventral stream (where is it system and what is it system)?
The ventral stream (the "what pathway") travels to the temporal lobe and is involved with object identification and recognition, in order to plan behavior.
The dorsal stream (the "where pathway") passes through V5; terminates in the parietal lobe and is involved with processing the object's spatial location relevant to the viewer, in order to program behavior.
19. Look over visual disorders (what are they and what areas do they affect). Example, damage to V4 results in achromotopsia, which is the loss of color in vision.
• Achromatopsia: loss of color in vision (V4)
• Akinetopsia: loss of motion
• Agnosia: inability to recognize visually
presented material presented mat
Damage to the visual cortex (V1):
-Have cortical blindness
20. Be able to distinguish between apperceptive agnosia and associative agnosia.
•Apperceptive: damage to IT (more posterior)
- Can see but can't perceive what object is
-Can't copy, can't match, can't identify
- Can draw from memory
• Associative: more anterior
- Can't associate meaning with the object
- Can't name or identify visual object
-Can't draw from memory
- Can copy, can match
- Deficit can be category specific
21. Split-brain patients (think of experimental scenarios- if present comb to lvf and ask patient what he/she sees, what would you expect?). -draw figure
No language, sensory from left, controls left hand
Language, sensory from right, controls right hand
22. What are the differences between Broca's aphasia and Wernicke's aphasia? What are the similarities?
R & W: impaired
PARAPHASIAS: substitutes one word for another,
changes words and sentences in an inappropriate way
DAMAGE: Left (posterior/superior) temporal
SPEECH: nonfluent, agrammatic
NAMING: poor (anomia)
R & W: impaired
DAMAGE: Left inferior, posterior frontal (44,45)
23. What areas are involved in processing language (what are there proposed functions)?
Angular Gyrus- Processing Visual Linguistic Information
Wernickes Area- Speech Comprehension
Supramarginal Gyrus - Semantic Representation
Primary Motor Cortex - Transferring language into motor patterns that can be expressed.
Broca's Area - Speech Production
24. What tests are used to determine language lateralization?
Wada Test: sodium amytal
-Blocks Na+ channels
-Shown series of pictures and asked to name them
Dichotic listening task:
-Different information presented at same time
-Indicate which sound or word Indicate Indicate which sound or word heard more distinctly
fMRI and PET
25. What is the hypothetical sleep-wake model (e.g. brain regions, neurotransmitters, and inhibition)?
Sleep center is inhibited when awake
-5-HT builds up during the day HT builds up during the day
NE decreases throughout the day
-At night, low NE+ level; high 5HT levels = systems switch
Raphe Nucleus releases 5HT; LC becomes inhibited and NE+ begins to build up = causes sleep
* When RN active = inhibits LC; when LC active = inhibits RN
26. What neurotransmitter is involved in REM sleep? What is REM sleep characterized by? What does the EEG activity look like?
Rapid eye movements
27. Describe characteristics associated with the various sleep stages? What different waveforms are recorded on an EEG during the different stages of sleep - beta waves, delta waves, sleep spindles, etc. (What happens during Stage 2? Stage 4?).
Stage 1 sleep
- shows events of irregular shows events of irregular
frequency and smaller amplitude as well as frequency frequency and smaller smaller amplitude amplitude
as well as vertex spikes, or sharp waves
-Heart rate slows, muscle tension reduces, eyes move about
-Lasts several minutes
Stage 2 sleep:
-Defined by waves of 12 to 14 Hz that occur in bursts, called
-K-complexes complexes appear
- Sharp negative EEG potentials
Stage 3 sleep:
-Continued sleep spindles as in stage 2
-Defined by the appearance of large Defined by the appearance of large-amplitude, very slow waves called delta waves
-Delta waves occur about once per second
Stage 4 sleep:
Delta waves are present about half the time
REM sleep follows:
-Active EEG with small Active EEG with small-amplitude, high amplitude, high-frequency frequency waves, like an awake person
-Muscles are relaxed
-Called paradoxical sleep
28. What are narcolepsy and cataplexy?
Narcolepsy: sudden onset of REM sleep while the individual is awake
-Excessive daytime sleepiness and recurring unwanted episodes of sleep- "sleep attacks"
-Can occur at any time of day, regardless of what the
person is doing, although emotional excitement may
Cataplexy: sudden and acute loss of muscle tone (symptom of narcolepsy) can be triggered by laughing, anger, during sex
Think through a split-brain scenario (assuming that the language is lateralized to the left hemisphere)
The best way to approach these questions is to remember the following a) information presented to the left visual field (e.g. you are presented with an object) crosses over to the right hemisphere (contralateral) and crosses back to the left side of the body (i.e. left hand); b) information presented to the right visual field crosses to the left hemisphere (language) and crosses back to the right side of the body (i.e., right hand). So if an object is presented to the left visual field of the split-brain patient what would you expect them to say that they see? Nothing (because not sent to hemisphere that contains language center.
What if it was presented to the right visual field? Now you would expect the patient to tell you the name of the object. Think through these types of scenarios and be sure to read the questions carefully (as sometimes they may ask what you would expect to see vs. what you would expect the patient to say or do).
What are the characteristics of the type 1 articular receptors ?
What are the transversus thoracis attached to?
What does angiotensin converting enzyme do?
Where do the subclavian trunks drain from?
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