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ch 5


the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism

Energy balancing act

chemical reactions can either release or require energy

Two classes of chemical reactions

those that release or require energy; catabolic or anabolic


provides the material needed for cellular growth and repair...larger molecules are made from smaller ones...requires energy

A type of anabolic process is...which...

dehydration synthesis...joins many simple sugar molecules (monosaccharides) to form glycogen...produces water


when formed by dehydration synthesis, stores energy that the person may use later

When monosaccharide units join...

an -OH (hydroxyl group) from one monosaccharide and a -H (hydrogen atom) from an -OH group is removed from another. -H and -OH react to produce water molecule and the monosaccharides are joined by a shared oxygen atom

Dehydration synthesis also forms...

glycerol and fatty acids joins to form fat...proteins are formed from the joining of amino acids...used to make polysaccharides, triglycerides, proteins and carbohydrates


the enzyme-regulated chemical reactions that release energy...the breakdown of complex organic compounds into simpler ones..large is broken down to small

Catabolic reactions are usually...

Hydrolytic reactions (reactions which use water and in which chemical bonds are broken)


can decompose carbohydrates, lipids and proteins; carbohydrates into monosaccharides; proteins into amino acids; nucleic acids into nucleotides...a water molecule is used for each bond broken/used to split the substances

Ex hydrolysis

Hydrolysis of a disaccharide for example yields 2 monosaccharide molecules. The bond between the simple sugars breaks and the water molecule supplies a hydrogen atom to one sugar molecule and a hydroxyl group to the other.

Does hydrolysis occur automatically??

No it requires an enzyme

Is salt dissolving in water an example of hydrolysis??


What is the reverse of hydrolysis??


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