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WMS 8th Grade History: 2nd QA
Terms in this set (84)
A government in which citizens rule through elected representatives
A written plan that provides the basic framework of a government
Articles of Confederation
First form of government in the United States.after the Revolutionary War. Ratified in 1781.
Weaknesses of the Articles of Confederation.
Congress had no power to collect taxes, no power to regulate foreign trade, no power to enforce laws, no executive branch, no national court system.
The vast territory of land that included present-day Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio and Wisconsin; was broken up in to Townships by the Land Ordinance of 1785 and politically organized by the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
Land Ordinance of 1785
A law that divided much of the United States into a system of townships to facilitate the sale of land to settlers.
Northwest Land Ordinance of 1787
The lone accomplishment of the Articles of Confederation-it created a system for admitting new states from the territory acquired originally during the French and Indian war.
-each territory governed by a territorial governor
-with 50,000 free adult males it could elect its own legislature
-when population reached 60,000 could apply to Congress to become a state,
Conflict in Massachusetts over soldier pay and government taxes that caused many to criticize the Articles of Confederation and admit the weak central government was not working;
Leader of Shays' Rebellion
Why was The Constitutional Convention set up?
The government was not strong enough and could not trade with other countries. They wanted to create national trade laws but to do that they had to get rid of the Articles of Confederation.
A meeting held in Philadelphia in 1787 at which delegates from the states wrote the US Constitution.
Elected president of the Constitutional Convention.
Oldest delegate at the Constitutional Convention
Was not at the Constitutional Convention, but wrote letters expressing his support for the ideas from overseas.
"Father of the Constitutional Convention"
Took many notes over the happening at the convention.
Wrote the Virginia plan
Written by James Madison
Proposed by Edmund Randolph
Strong national government with three branches:
Congress would be made up of two houses: -House of Representatives and Senate
-Number in each determined by the state's population
Benefited larger states
Proposed the New Jersey plan
New Jersey Plan
Proposed by William Paterson
Government with three branches
legislative branch would only have one house
each state would have an equal number of votes in Congress, no matter what the state's population.
Benefited smaller States.
Agreement between two or more sides in which each side gives up some of what it wants
Proposed The Great Compromise.
The plan for the government the used ideas from the Virgina and New Jersey Plans.
Established a two house Congress.
-In the House of Representatives, representation from each state is based on population.
-In the Senate, representation would be equal for each state no matter what the size.
It was presented by Rodger Sherman
An agreement made at the Constitutional Convention stating that every five enslaved persons would be counted as three free men when determining a state's population for representation in the House of Representatives
To formally approve a plan or an agreement
A form of government in which power is shared between the federal, or national, government and the states
People who supported the ratification of the Constitution.
People who were AGAINST the ratification of the Constitution.
Thought the Constitution took to much power away from the States.
They wanted a Bill of Rights to be included in the Constitution.
The Federalist Papers
A series of essays written by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of the ratification of the Constitution by the states.
Bill of Rights
A formal listing of the basic rights of US citizens
amendments 1-10 in the Constitution
created to convince some states to ratify the Constitution.
Written by James Madison.
Checks and Balances
the balancing of power between branches, each has the power to check or limit the actions of th other two.
A system in which power is divided or shared between the national and state governments
Separation of Power
the constitution divides the government into 3 branches amd each has its own duties
you cannot be tried twice for the same crime
when Congress votes to bring charges of crimes against the President. This is one way the Legislative Branch checks on the Executive Branch
the people rule, power comes from people, people create government
the government only has the powers the Constitution gives to it
a form of government in which people elect representatives to govern them.
basic liberties and rights of all citizens are guaranteed in the Bill of Rights
Congress the power to make all which shall be necessary and proper for carrying out its duties. [Article 1, Section 8]
Bill of Rights
document that protects the rights of citizens and states
the term used when the executive branch rejects a bill submitted by the legislative branch
when the President frees someone from punishment, either those facing charges or those convicted of crimes.
the power of the government to take personal property to benfit the public as long as they pay a fair price for it
to pass a law despite a veto by the executive branch legislative branch and override the veto with a 2/3rds majority vote.
Congress. The branch of government that makes the laws.
The President. The branch of government that enforces the laws
The Supreme Court. The branch of government that interprets laws
The constitutional amendment that establishes the five basic freedoms: freedom of the press, of speech, of religion, of petition, and of assembly.
Congress has power to declare war
the president can MAKE a treaty with a foreign government.
Senate must APPROVE treaties.
What was the purpose of the Second Continental Congress?
Delegates still attempted to keep peace with England, but they also prepared for war & chose George Washington as the Commander of the Army.
What was the Declaration of Independence?
A document listing the complaints against King George and stating why America needed to be free from British rule. It was written by Thomas Jefferson. Jefferson based this document on John Locke's ideas.
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence?
What are inalienable rights, as stated in the Declaration of Independence?
They are natural rights everyone has that cannot be taken away such as life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Based on John Locke's ideas of natural rights to life, liberty, and property.
Who did the Second Continental Congress pick to be the Commander of the American Army in the Revolutionary War.
What group created the the Declaration of Independence and the Continental Army?
Second Continental Congress
Overthrowing an existing government and replacing it with a new form.
A person who supported the colonists during the American Revolution
One who does not side with any party in a war or dispute
A person who supported the British during the American Revolution
New England and Virgina
Most Patriots were from these areas of the U.S.
Cities and the South
Most Loyalists were from these areas of the U.S.
Commander of the Continental Army
Started in the English army and worked his way up through the ranks. Latter during the revolution he turned sides and was appointed to take charge of the Continental army of the North. One of his accomplishments was his victory at Saratoga. His career in the army ended when he lost to Lord Cornwallis at Camden and ran away.
Group of mercenaries from Germany who fought for Britain during the American Revolution
Battle of Princeton
Washington launches another surprise attack, this time by leaving campfires going and flanking the British
Body of water Washington famously crossed before launching the surprise attack on Trenton
Battle of Trenton
Washington crossed the Delaware River and then the Americans surprised the Hessian troops guarding Trenton. The Americans captured or killed 900 Hessians.
British general who surrendered at Saratoga
Battle of Saratoga
This battle was the turning point of the war. After this battle foreign nations like France and Spain allied with the colonists against the British. This is also important because the British lost and were unable to cut New England off from the rest of the states.
France and Spain
Two major allies of the Americans during the American Revolution. They joined after the Americans won the Battle of Saratoga.
Area outside Philadelphia that Washington and the Continental Army spent the harsh winter of 1777-1778 camped out. Even though it was one of the greatest hardships American troops ever faced they were still able to get trained by foreign army officers. This greatly improved the American army.
Baron von Steuben
German commander who came to Valley Forge to help George Washington; trained the colonists and taught them discipline
A privately owned warship commissioned to prey on the commercial shipping or warships of an enemy nation
John Paul Jones
The commander of one of America's ships. He brought war into the waters of the British seas. Considered the father of the US Navy,
A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
Chosen as the leader of the Continental army in the South after Horatio Gates was fired. He severely weakened Cornwallis's army at the Battle of Guilford Courthouse in North Carolina, forcing the British to surrender at Yorktown
Battle of Yorktown
Last major battle of the American Revolution. Battle in which Lord Cornwallis surrendered to the Americans. It was a terrible place for the British to set up a base because it was located on a peninsula.
British general. He surrendered his entire army to George Washington after the battle of Yorktown.
Treaty of Paris (1783)
This treaty ended the Revolutionary War, recognized the independence of the American colonies, and granted the colonies the territory from the southern border of Canada to the northern border of Florida, and from the Atlantic coast to the Mississippi River
Battle of Charles Town
British siege of Charles Town, South Carolina, in May 1780, in which the Americans suffered their worst defeat of the war
Battle of Camden
This was the 1780 battle during the American Revolution in which the British forces, led by Lieutenant General Lord Charles Cornwallis soundly defeated the Continental armed forces led by General Horatio Gates. Gates was fired after this battle because he ran away. Nathaniel Greene was then put in charge.
Congress had to pay soldiers with these because they did not have money to pay them with. Soldiers often sold these in order to but basic supplies.
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