30 terms

Myers' AP Psychology Unit1

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Empiricism
the view that knowledge originates in experience and that science should, therefore, rely on observation and experimentation. With Francis bacon's help, John Locke wrote an essay concerning human understanding (20 years) and founded it.
structuralism
an early school of psychology that used introspection to explore the elemental structure of the human mind. founded by Edward titchener after joining cornell
functionalism
a school of psychology that focused on how mental and behavioral processes function - how they enable the organism to adapt, survive, and flourish. founded by william james. influenced by darwins theory of natural selection. study of stream of consciousness
experimental psychology
the study of behavior and thinking using the experimental method. Encompasses topics that have traditionally been of interest to psychology such as sensation, perception, learning, conditioning, motivation and emotion.
behaviorism
the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes. Most research psychologists today agree with (1) but not with (2) founded by B.F skinner. dismissed introspection
Humanistic psychology
historically significant perspective that emphasized the growth potential of healthy people and the individual's potential for personal growth. rebelled against freudian psychology
cognitive neuroscience
the interdisciplinary study of the brain activity linked with cognition (including perception, thinking, memory, and language). supported early psychology theories
psychology
the science of behavior and mental processes
nature-nurture issue
the longstanding controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors. Today's science sees traits and behaviors arising from the interaction of nature and nurture. very old and recurring topic
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
levels of analysis
the differing complementary views, from biological to psychological to social-cultural, for analyzing any given phenomenon.
biopsychosocial approach
an integrated perspective that incorporates biological, psychological, and social-cultural levels of analysis.
biological psychology
a branch of psychology that studies the links between biological (including neuroscience and behavior genetics) and psychological processes
evolutionary psychology
the study of the roots of behavior and mental processes using the principles of natural selection
psychodynamic psychology
a branch of psychology that studies how unconscious drives and conflicts influence behavior, and uses that information to treat people with psychological disorders
behavioral psychology
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning; as a theoretical orientation, behaviorism is based on the premise that scientific psychology should study only observable behavior
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
social-cultural psychology
the study of how situations and cultures affect our behavior and thinking.
psychometrics
the scientific study of the measurement of human abilities, attitudes, and traits
basic research
pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base.
development psychology
The branch of psychology that explores physical, emotional, cognitive, and social aspects of development.
educational psychology
the study of how psychological processes affect and an enhance teaching and learning; examines curriculum design, teacher training, achievement testing, student motivation, classroom diversity, and other aspects of the educational process.
personality psychology
the study of an individual's characteristic pattern of thinking, feeling, and acting
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
applied research
scientific study that aims to solve practical problems.
industrial-organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
human factors psychology
the study of how people and machines interact and the design of safe and easily used machines and environments
counseling psychology
a branch of psychology that assists people with problems in living (often related to school, work, or marriage) and in achieving greater well-being.
clinical psychology
a branch of psychology that studies, assesses, and treats people with psychological disorders.
psychiatry
a branch of medicine dealing with psychological disorders; practiced by physicians who sometimes provide medical (for example, drug) treatments as well as psychological therapy