34 terms

Myers AP Psychology Unit 2

All of the vocab words from unit 2
STUDY
PLAY
Hindsight Bias
I-knew-it-all-along-phenomenon
People believe that they knew something all along after an event happens .
Critical Thinking
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
Theory
An explanation using integrated sets of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Hypothesis
A testable prediction often implied by a theory.
Operational Definition
Statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
Replication
Repeating the essence of a research study , usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
Survey
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
Population
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
Random Sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Naturalistic Observation
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
Correlation
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.
Correlation Coefficient
A statistical index of the relationship of two things.
Scatterplot
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
Illusory Correlation
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
Experiment
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.
Double-Blind Procedure
An experiment procedure in which both the research participants and research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Placebo Effect
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
Experimental Group
The group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
Independent Variable
The experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied.
Confounding (Third) Variable
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
Dependent Variable
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
Mean
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the score s and then dividing by the number of scores.
Median
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
Range
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
Standard Deviation
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
Normal Curve
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that described the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall towards the mean and few near the extremes.
Statistical Significance
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Culture
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Informed Consent
An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they with to participate.
Debriefing
The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principals
control group
in an experiment the group that is not exposed to the treatment , serves as a comparison for the experimental group
mode
the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution