I-knew-it-all-along-phenomenon People believe that they knew something all along after an event happens .
Thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and assesses conclusions.
An explanation using integrated sets of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
A testable prediction often implied by a theory.
Statement of the procedures (operations) used to define research variables.
Repeating the essence of a research study , usually with different participants in different situations to see whether the basic finding extends to other participants and circumstances.
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of a particular group, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of the group.
All the cases in a group being studied, from which samples may be drawn.
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion.
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation.
A measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus how well either factor predicts the other.
A statistical index of the relationship of two things.
A graphed cluster of dots, each of which represents the values of two variables. The slope of the points suggests the direction of the relationship between the two variables. The amount of scatter suggests the strength of the correlation.
The perception of a relationship where none exists.
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental processes. By random assignment of participants, the experimenter aims to control other relevant factors.
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to different groups.
An experiment procedure in which both the research participants and research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placebo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which the recipient assumes is an active agent.
The group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable.
The experimental factor that is manipulated, the variable whose effect is being studied.
Confounding (Third) Variable
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
The outcome factor; the variable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variable.
The arithmetic average of a distribution, obtained by adding the score s and then dividing by the number of scores.
The middle score in a distribution; half the scores are above it and half are below it.
The difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
A symmetrical, bell-shaped curve that described the distribution of many types of data; most scores fall towards the mean and few near the extremes.
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
An ethical principle that research participants be told enough to enable them to choose whether they with to participate.
The post experimental explanation of a study, including its purpose and any deceptions to its participants.
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealing universal principals
in an experiment the group that is not exposed to the treatment , serves as a comparison for the experimental group
the most frequently occurring scores in a distribution