25 terms

Early Humans and the First Cultures - Fall 2016

vocab cards for Early Humans / First Cultures
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agriculture
the raising of plants and animals for human use
domesticate
to train plants or animals to be useful to people.
specialize
to spend most of one's time doing one kind of job
hunter-gatherer
someone who survives by hunting animals and gathering plants for food
pre-history
the period of time before writing began
surplus
having an extra supply of something, such as crops, that is not needed immediately.
Characteristics of the Paleolithic Era
1. people survived by hunting and gathering.
2. people were nomads - followed herds of animals.
2. Lived during the Ice Age
3. lived in caves or simple shelters.
4. Simple tools were made out of stone and bones - later skills created more advanced tools.
5. Common name - Old Stone Age
6. Time Period - 70,000 BCE - 10,000 BCE
Characteristics of the Neolithic Era
1. plants and animals were domesticated both to help with work and for food.
2. Agriculture developed - crops were planted and harvested.
3. Farming created surplus allowing people began to specialize.
4. People settled down in one place - civilizations began.
5. Time Period - 10,000- BCE to 4000 BCE.
6. Common name - New Stone Age
7. Ice Age ended
8. More specialized tools were developed
A reason to be a farmer instead of a hunter-gatherer
You can have a steady supply of food; people can specialize - not everyone has to farm and it is safer to live in towns instead of alone
6 uses of fire
1. warmth
2. light
3. cook food
4. shape and harden tools
5. scare away animals
6. trap animals
Ardipithecus Ramidus
Ardi - 4.4 million years BCE
both quadripedal and bipedal
discovered in Africa - Ethiopia
Australopithecus Afarensis
Lucy - 3.5 million years BCE
Means southern ape - had arthritis
first true bipedal human
discovered by Donald Johanson in Great Rift Valley-Africa
Homo Habilis
Handy Man - 2 million BCE - 1 million BCE
first human to make and use tools
no language - possibly gestures; some sound
simple huts
Homo Erectus
Means Upright human - first true upright human
lived 1.5 million BCE - 250,000 BCE
first to use and control fire
lived in groups
draped animal skins
Homo Sapiens - Neanderthal
Wise human - Cave Man
Lived 250,000 - 40,000 BCE
Found in Neander Germany
had speech - limited
cared for aged and sick
evidence of ceremony - burial
used tools, fire and could make clothing
Homo Sapiens - CroMagnon
40,000 - 10,000 BCE
precursor to Modern Human
first artists
migrated to every continent except Antarctica
first clear speech
specialized tools, clothing
flaking
the skills used by early humans to sharpen tools by chipping away the sides of rock.
hominid
an early ancestor of humans
anthropologist/archaeologist
people who study the remains of past cultures
migrate
to move from place to place
tool
any handheld object that has been modified to help a person accomplish a task
Ice Age
time period when the earth was covered with ice
land bridge
a strip of land connecting two continents
megaliths
huge stones used as monuments or sites for religious gatherings
obsidian
a hard, dark, glasslike volcanic rock