67 terms

Anatomy/Physiology Voice and Speech Mechanism

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Ventral
pertaining to the front
Dorsal
pertaining to the back
Anterior
of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body
Posterior
at or near the hind end
Superior
toward the head
Inferior
away from the head or middle of body
Superficial
toward the surface of the body
Deep
toward the middle of the body
Cranial
pertaining or near the head
Caudal
pertaining or near the tail bone
Medial
toward the mid-line of the body
Lateral
away from the mid-line of the body
Proximal
close to
Distal
far from
Afferent
sensory
Efferent
exiting the brain; going to the body
5 types of vertebrae
7 Cervical, 12 Thoracic, 5 Lumbar, 5 Sacral, 4 Coccygeal
3 types of ribs
7 True, 3 False, 2 Floating
What makes up the pelvic girdle
ring of bones formed by the sacrum, coxae,pelvic bones(ilium,ischium,and pubis)
Bronchial tree
The bronchi and all their branches that function as passageways between the trachea and the alveoli
Number of lobes in each lung
right lung - 2 lobes
left lung - 3 lobes
Alveoli
tiny sacs of lung tissue specialized for the movement of gases between air and blood
Respiration
the bodily process of inhalation and exhalation
inhalation - bringing oxygen to the body's cells by breathing in
expiration - eliminating carbon dioxide from the body's cells by breathing out
Air pressure
the measure of the force with which air molecules push on a surface
Boyle's Law
the relationship between the pressure and volume of a gas at constant temperture; when volume increase, pressure decreases V up = P down ; V down = P up
Parts of the sternum
Manubrium, Corpus, Xiphoid process
Diaphragm
primary muscle of inspiration; separates the thorax from the abdomen;central tendon is a sheet-like tendon
ANTERIOR Accessory Muscles of INSPIRATION
External/Internal Intercostals, Pectoralis Major, Pectoralis Minor, Serratus Anterior
POSTERIOR Accessory Muscles of INSPIRATION
Serratus Posterior Superior, Levator Costarum, Levator Costarum, Sternocleidomastoid, Scalene
ANTERIOR Muscles of FORCED EXPIRATION
Abdominal Muscles: Rectus Abdominis, External Obliques, Internal Obliques, Transverse Abdominis
^^ Pull rib cage down
POSTERIOR Muscles of FORCED EXPIRATION
Quadratus Lumborum, Serratus Posterior Inferior, Latissimus Dorsi
^^Pull rib cage down
Tidal Volume (TV)
amount of air exhaled after a normal inspiration; quiet breathing
Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV)
amount of air that can be forcefully exhaled after a normal tidal volume exhalation
Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV)
the additional air that can be inhaled after a normal tidal breath in. The maximal volume of air that can be inspired in addition to the tidal volume
Residual Volume (RV)
the amount of air that is left in the body after the maximum forcefully exhaled amount of air has been expelled
Inspiratory Capacity (IC)
Tidal Volume (TV) + Inspiratory Reserve Volume (IRV), Max amount of air that can be inspired after a normal expiration
Functional Residual Capacity (FRC)
Reserve Volume (RV) + Expiratory Reserve Volume (ERV),Amount of air remaining in lungs after a normal tidal expiration.
Vital Capacity (VC)
the quantity of air available for respiration, amount of air after a maximal inspiration
Total Lung Capacity (TLC)
everything that your lungs are capable of holding
Pleural Pressure
pressure between visceral and parietal pleurae
Subglottal Pressure
pressure below the vocal folds
Intraoral Pressure
pressure in the mouth
Glottis
the space between the vocal folds, most important laryngeal space for speech
Subglottal
the space below the vocal folds
Primary function of phonatory system
throat clearing ; build subglottal pressure, clamp the vocal folds shut, clear respiratory system
Secondary function of phonatory system
attack; process of adducting folds to begin process of phonating
Adduction
(physiology) moving of a body part toward the central axis of the body
Abduction
(physiology) moving of a body part away from the central axis of the body
Vestibule Cavity
space between the aditus and the ventricular folds
Larygeal Vestibule
middle space of the larynx, between the ventricular and vocal folds
INTRINSIC muscles of the LARYNX
muscles that have both origin & insertion on the laryngeal cartilages, responsible for sensation and motor function in the thorax, neck, and abdomen
Vocal Fold Adductors
lateral cricoarytenoids (LCA), transverse arytenoids (TA), oblique arytenoids (OA)
Vocal Fold Abductor
posterior cricoarytenoid
Glottal Tensors
cricothyroid, thyroarytenoids
Glottal Relaxers
thyroarytenoids
EXTRINSIC muscles of the LARYNX 1
muscles that have one attachment on a non-laryngeal structure, elevates or depresses the larynx, important in swallowing and speech production
EXTRINSIC muscles of the LARYNX 2
Hyoid elevators, Laryngeal elevators, Hyoid depressors, Laryngeal elevators
Infrahyoids
depressors - below hyoid bone, when contract depress - Sternothyroid, Sternohyoid, Omohyoid, Thyrohyoid
Suprahyoids
elevators - above hyoid bone, when contract lift the larynx - Digastric, Stylohyoid, Mylohyoid, Geniohyoid, hyoglossus (tongue), Genioglossus, Inferior Constrictor/Cricopharyngeus
Non-speech Laryngeal Functions 1
protective function is the most important role of the larynx, prevents entrance of foreign objects int o the lungs (aspiration etc..)
Non-speech Laryngeal Functions 2
coughing, throat clearing, abdominal fixation ( pushing with your body)
Laryngeal Functions for Speech
phonation (voicing) is the product of the vibration of the vocal folds within the larynx
Bernoulli Effect
as velocity of flow increases, pressure must decrease; so long as total energy remains a constant
Vocal Registers
glottal fry, falsetto, modal register
Frequency
the # of cycles of vibration/second
Pitch
the psychological correlate of frequency
Types of Pitch
optimal (most efficient pitch), habitual (what you make your vocal folds do;what your used to)
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