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Chapter 8 exam 2


The totality of an organism's chemical reactions is called:


Hundreds of amino acids are bonded together to form a polypeptide chain. This is an example of a what type of reaction?

Potential and chemical

An ATP molecule contains what kind of energy?

The law expresses that energy can be transformed, i.e. changed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.

What is the 1st law of thermodynamics?

every energy transfer or transformation increases the entropy of the universe. (we are destroying the planet by existing hehe)

What is the 2nd law of thermodynamics?

Oxidative phosporylation

The majority of ATP is made during which stage of cellular respiration?

Calvin Cycle

Glucose is actually constructed during which stage of photosynthesis?


Where does photosynthesis occur in a plant cell?

degradation or breakdown reactions, which result in the release of energy. The energy release can be used to directly to perform cellular work.

Define Catabolic pathways:

reactions that proceed with a net release of energy. note the products of the reaction contain less energy than reactants.

Define exergonic

reactions that proceed with a net input of energy. note: the reaction must get energy from their surroundings. The products of the reaction contain more energy than the reactants.

Define endergonic

a reaction that can occur without the input of energy. This term does not imply that the reaction occurs quickly or instantaneously. e.g. Rusting of metal is a spontaneous process but occurs over a long period of time.

Define spontaneous reactions:

Anabolic: builds, need energy input, energy can be stored.
Catabolic: breakdown, will export/release energy, can release energy

anabolic vs catabolic

C6H12O6 + 6 O2 --> 6 CO2 + 6 H2O + energy as ATP and heat

Cellular Respiration overall equation

Oxidation Reduction reaction aka REDOX reaction

How does a catabolic pathway such as cellular respiration yield energy? (hint: it involves electrons)


The loss of electrons from one substance.


The addition of electrons from one substance.

- It acts as an electron carrier
- Oxidizing agent during respiration

What key role does NAD+ play in the harvest of energy from glucose during cellular respiration?

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