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Radiation Protection Chap 5-6
Terms in this set (66)
What is the occupational exposure value for a typical year?
5 rem or 50 mSv or 5000mRem
List 4 types of personnel dosimeters used to measure exposure of the body to ionizing radiation
-Optically stimulated luminescence dosimeter (OSL) this is what we use
-Pocket ionization chamber (pocket dosimeter)
-Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD)
-metal filters measure approx. dose by leaving faint shadow on the film, estimation of energy
-Al and copper
-Dose evaluated as deep or shallow
Optically Stimulated Luminescence Dosimeter
-more accurate reading of different radiation energies
-tamper proof plastic holder
-contains an aluminum oxide detector
-read out using laser light at selected frequencies
-permanent legal record
-disadvantage is must be sent out for reading
Thermoluminescent dosimeter TLD
Lithium fluoride crystals (Lif) interact with radiation as human tissue (more accurate), can be used for 3 months
Pocket Ionization Chamber
-self-reading-gives immediate exposure readout
-compact, easy to carry
-reasonably accurate and sensitive
-expensive, must be read daily or may be inaccurate
-can give high reading due to mechanical shock
-no permanent or legal record
Who developed cell theory-the basic building block of the body?
What cells are most sensitive to damage?
What are the requirements of the body to ensure cell operation and function?
Provide food for the release of energy
Supply oxygen to help break down the food
Enough water to transport inorganic substances in and out of the cell
Characteristics of cells in the human body
-exist in many forms
-perform different functions
-some are freely moving, independent and others are stationary as part of tissue or structures
-mature cells are highly specialized, specific tasks
-can move, grow, react, protect themselves, repair damage and reproduce
Cell chemical composition
What is protoplasm?
The chemical building material for all living things, the substance around the nucleus in a cell
-made of organic compounds and inorganic materials dissolved or suspended in water
-Formed from 24 elements (esp carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen)
What is the % composition of protoplasm?
Nucleic acid 1%
What are the major classes of organic compounds that compose the cell?
Where is protein manufactured?
In the ribosomes
What contains the most carbon of all the organic compounds in a cell?
What is the basic constituent of all organic matter?
How many amino acids are there?
What are the two types of proteins?
Structural and enzymatic
What are enzymatic proteins?
Control the cells various physiologic function, function as organic catalysts
What are structural proteins?
They provide the body with its shape and form, provide a source of heat and energy for the body.
What is the role of repair enzymes?
Can mend damaged molecules, helps cell recover from small amounts of radiation induced damage.
Vital to the survival of cells
Produced by B lymphocytes (aka white blood cells) when foreign molecules detected in the body
Chemically attack any foreign invaders
Chemical secretions made by various endocrine glands and carried by the blood stream to other parts of the body. Regulate body functions
1% of cell content
Simple to complex
Short term energy warehouses for the body
Provides fuel for cell metabolism
2% cell content
structural parts of cell membranes
perform various functions for the body
present in all body tissue
1% of cell
DNA and RNA
Made up by nucleotides
Bases are composed of complimentary chemicals
Hydrogen bonds attach bases to each other
Located in the nucleus
DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)
-2 long sugar-phosphate chains that are linked
-linked by pairs of nitrogenous organic bases
-regulates all cellular activity for protein synthesis (through the production of mRNA)
-hydrogen bonds attach bases to each other
Name the 4 bases in DNA and how they bond
Adenine (purine) bonds to Thymine (pyrimidine)
Cytosine (pyrimidine) to Guanine (purine)
mRNA (messenger RNA)
Resembles 1/2 DNA molecule
Ribose instead of deoxyribose
Uracel replaces thymine
Leaves the nucleus and once in cytoplasm it directs the process of making protein out of amino acids
tRNA (transfer RNA)
22 types exist, one for each amino acid
Combines with different amino acids and attaches them to ribosomes
Amino acids are arranged in specific order to form chainlike protein molecules
rRNA (ribosomal RNA)
another type of RNA
Function is to assist linking or mRNA to the ribosome to facilitate protein synthesis
Normal human has 46 different chromosomes in each somatic cell (23 pairs)
Reproductive cells have 23 chromosomes each
Made of protein and DNA
Basic unit of heredity
Controls the formation of proteins in every cell
Responsible for directing cytoplasmic activity
What is the Human Genome?
The total amount of genetic material (DNA) contained within the chromosomes of a human.
Mapping is the process of locating and identifying the genes
Compounds that don't contain carbon
Occur in nature independent of living things
Most common are water and mineral salts
Water makes up 80-85% of the body
What is the function of water within the cell?
Acts as a solvent, keeps compounds dissolved
Medium in which chemical reactions occur, basis of metabolic activity
What is the function of water outside of the cell?
Transport vehicle for materials the cell uses or eliminates
Maintains body's core temperature
Lubricates the digestive and skeletal system
Protects organs like the brain and lungs
Function of mineral salts within the cell
Keeps correct amount of water in the cell to maintain osmotic pressure.
Needed for creation of energy, cell performance and impulse conduction along nerves
Ions (parts of salts) cause material to break down, recombine to form new substances
In a DNA macromolecule, the sequence of ________ determines the characteristics of every living thing
C) Nitrogenous organic bases
D) hydrogen bonds
C-Nitrogenous organic bases
How many base pairs are there in the human genome?
2.9 x 10(power of 9)
Radiation-induced chromosome damage may be evaluated during which phase?
If exposure to ionizing radiation damages the components involved in molecular synthesis beyond repair, cells do what?
Function abnormally or die
What produces antibodies?
Which human cell component controls cell division and multiplication as well as biochemical reactions that occur within the cell?
Somatic cells divide through the process of
What cell structure is located outside the nucleus, makes up the majority of the cell and is where all functions occur?
What cell structure acts as a barricade and is double walled?
What cell structure is considered the highway system of the cell, made up of a network of tubules, can be either smooth or rough?
What cell structure concentrates, packages and then transports enzymes and hormones through the cell membrane, can also store energy and is comprised of tubes and sacs near the nucleus?
What cell structure is considered the powerhouse of the cell, it produces energy for cellular activity (ATP) and is a large bean shaped structure?
What cell structure contains DNA, the nucleolus and controls both cell division and biochemical reactions?
What cell structure is responsible for the disposal of large particles like bacteria and is considered the garbage bags of the cell?
What are the two types of cell division that occur in the body?
What is Mitosis?
Occurs when all somatic cells divide
Process in which the nucleus first divides, followed by the division on the cytoplasm
Results in the equal distribution of cellular material between two daughter cells
What is Meiosis?
Occurs when genetic cells divide
Process of reduction cell division
What is Interphase in regards to mitosis?
A period of cell growth that occurs before actual mitosis
Name the 4 subphases of mitosis?
During what phase of mitosis does the nuclear membrane disappear and the chromatids become visible?
During what phase of mitosis does each chromosome line up at the center of the cell and a mitotic spindle form between the centrioles?
During what phase of mitosis do the duplicate centromeres migrate to opposite directions along the spindle?
During what phase of mitosis do the chromatids undergo changes by uncoiling and becoming long and loosely spiraled and a nuclear membranes reforms?
What is the process of meiosis?
Special type of cell division that reduces the number of chromosomes in each daughter cell to half the number in the parent cell. Four cells result from one germ cell
What are polyzygotic siblings?
When there are more than two multiple births at once (triplets or quads etc)
What are dizygotic siblings?
What are monozygotic twins?
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