processing of info. that guides behaviour, but w/out conscious awareness.
-and w/out interfering w/other conscious activity that may be going on at the same time.
-for ex: driving slowly down a street (auto processing), while looking for a specific address (conscious processing)
learning or storing (encoding) that requires attention & effort. Even though we have the capacity to learn lots of things...
-there are lots of times when we MUST PRACTICE, rehearse, & try to remember things.
-when we engage in any technique to help remember info better, we are engaging in _______ _________.
exploits this tendency (to read words very quickly-almost automatically), by showing words which are the names of colors, but printing them in colors different than the color written.
localized points in space, percieving depth, determining orientation of lines, percieving motion, rotating items mentally
Some form of indirect/additional/unplanned learning within an informal or formal learning situation.
- as when a child happens to push a button on a musical toy and discovers that this action causes music to play
Used to describe learning efforts and activities that are engaged in when a learner is deliberately trying to learn something so that it can be recalled later.
-used in Word Superiority Effect (WSE) studies to avoid iconic memory after a word or nonword is flashed up.
-this is done by a row of Xs
-so, for example, if the word "STAY" is quickly flashed up, then, immediately, 4 Xs will replace the word. Then a person will be given 2 letters (say, Y & E), then they must recall which letter was in the given word.
context effects in recognition
Top-down processing, where Long Term Memory affects perception - information does not only flow one way.
-for ex.: if the word QUOTE is written as QVOTE, you will still recognize it as the correct, meaningful word b/c its context gives you a clue (esp. the 1st & last letters, in their original, correct places helps).
-(part of context effects from top-down processing)
-people read what they expect, instead of what is there, and therefore, cannot effectively proofread their own work
-people, before spellcheck, used to read their papers backward to avoid being tricked by context effects.
phonemic restoration effect
When a phoneme in a word is heard, even though it is obscured by a noise, such as a cough. This typically occurs when the word is part of a sentence (ex: the cough eel, or also, mistaking sex and violence for sax and violins).
-(so, filling in a missing phoneme or sound is based on context, even when the context is after the missing info.)
-from top-down processing
-this is auditory imposed organization (an auditory illusion)
-Warren & Warren (1970)
Model of how a phenomenon (some aspect of language acquisition) could be accompanied by a device that consists of a network of interconnected nodes.
-Usually implemented as computer programs to prove connectionist account of language acquisition. (computer models of word recognition)