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the highlands in Ethiopia
were one of the centers of domestication of plants and animals in Sub Saharan Africa
is the process by which arid and semiarid lands become degraded and less productive, leading to more desertlike conditions
The causes of desertification
are seen as climate change, overgrazing, over-cultivation and unskilled irrigation
During the colonial period of Africa
Europeans were reluctant to move into the interior of Africa because of the fear of diseases for which they had no natural immunity
African women with more education
tend to have smaller families than those women with less education.
African countries have seen a steady decline
in the price for their raw materials exports over the last decades.
The Interior Lowlands
is a formerly glaciated landscape that contains fertile soils and an abundance of lakes and rivers
On the North American continent
the jet stream brings precipitation to most of the continent in the winter.
North America is the only region in the world
that contains the full range of climate types that occur globally, stretching from Alaska and the Canadian Arctic to the tropical Hawai'ian Islands.
The first inhabitants of North America probably originated in what is
today northern China and Siberia.
Columbus thought he had arrived in
The Far East; however, he actually had arrived in the Caribbean (Bahamas).
In both Canada and the U.S
Great Britain was far and away the most influential of the four colonial powers.
Although its inhabitants have diverse origins, North America is considered Europeanized because
of the predominance of European languages and Christianity
The first wave of immigration to North America (1820-1870)
was dominated by large numbers of Irish and German.
The second wave (1870-1920) of immigration
consisted of the "old" immigrants as well "new" immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. Italians and Poles were among the largest of the second wave.
The third wave (1970 - present)
differs from the previous two in that large numbers of immigrants have arrived from Asia and Latin America.
Compared to the United States, Canada's government
has been far more inclined to guarantee social welfare.
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