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Chapter 4 - Early Empires - Terms and Concepts
Terms in this set (32)
Lands controlled by one ruler (emperor). Emperor rules over many different people
Sargon of Akkad
Powerful leader that took over northern and southern Mesopotamia around 2350 BC. Was called the Akkadian Empire
Akkadian Empire highlights
Sargon's conquests from wars spread Akkadian ideas, culture, writing system. Empires often encouraged trade and brought peace for a time to the people. Akkadian Empire lasted for 200 years
Amorites invaded Sumer in 2000 BC and chose Babylon as its capitol.
Hammurabi - Babylonian Empire
Powerful Amorite King who ruled from 1792-1750 BC. Extended empire across Mesopotamia, Fertile Crescent. He appointed governors, tax collectors, judges to control lands; watched over agriculture, trade, construction
Code of Law
Set of written rules for people to obey
Hammurabi's Law Code - Babylonian Empire
He wanted a code of law to control his vast empire of many peoples. He studied existing rules and combined them into a single code of law. It was written in Cuneiform and displayed on pillars near temple
Hammurabi's Law Code Highlights
Contained 282 laws covering business, property, and personal conduct. Listed illegal acts and had different punishments for each social class. Gave some rights to women and children. Code formed idea that government should provide protection and justice for the people. Idea that society should be run by rule of law. His idea of justice was: an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth, a life for a life.
Hammurabi's Legacy - Babylonian Empire
Instituted tradition of society being governed by rule of law; established role of government in protecting the people; replaced personal revenge with codified system of laws; recorded in writing in public for everyone to see and obey; small crime did not lead to great punishment
Followed Babylonian Empire. Assyria was located in the hilly northern Mesopotamia. Assyrians conquered most of the Fertile Crescent from 850-650 BC. The empire reached its peak under Ashurbanipal (668-627 BC).
Assyrians as a mighty Military Machine
They built powerful horse and chariot army to protect lands; soldiers were the only ones in area to use iron swords, spear tips; they used battering rams, ladders, tunnels to get past city walls; they slaughtered enemy inhabitants within cities they conquered.
Assyrians Treat Captured people Cruely
Enemies who surrendered were allowed to choose a leader; enemies who resisted were taken captive and killed or enslaved; enemy leaders were killed, cities burned;
Forced to move from homelands to other lands, often far away. Assyrians often exiled captured peoples. These exiled people tried to gather forces to fight Assyrians.
How Assyria ruled
Assyrians chose native kings, governors to rule conquered lands;
Payment for army's protection. Assyrian's destroyed cities if no tribute was paid and exiled people.
How Assyria Empire crumbled
It fell in 609 BC and was defeated by combined forces of Medes and Chaldeans
Greatest cultural achievement of the Assyrians
Called New Babylonians because Babylon was the capital. Peaked from 605 - 562 BC under Nebuchadnezzar II. Neb. took Mediterranean trading cities and drove Egyptians out of Syria. Neb. seized Jerusalem when the Hebrews rebelled in 598 BC, destroying the temple and held Hebrews captive (exiled them) in Babylon for about 50 years.
Nebuchadnezzar II's legacy - Chaldean Empire
Built Bablyon's Ishtar Gate, Tower of Babel ziggurat, Hanging Gardens of Babylon - one of the 7 Wonders of the World - an artificial mountain covered with trees and plants.
End of Chaldean Empire
Weak rulers followed Nebuchadnezzar; Internal conflicts over religion divided the Chaldean people
Persia was located between Mesopotamia and India making a good bridge between eastern and western Asia. The mountain ranges isolated Persia from the rest of the Fertile Crescent. Persians enter the Mesopotamian region, creating tiny kingdoms around 1000 BC. They slowly grew in power threatening Medes' control of land.
Cyrus the Great, Persian King
Took control after Medes ruled Persia; wanted to conquer and unite surrounding lands as one empire; conquered Anatolia , or Asia Minor, within modern day Turkey; conquered Fertile Crescent between 550 and 539 BC.
Cyrus's legacy - Persian Empire
Controlled lands of different peoples with policy of toleration - allowing people to keep their customs and beliefs. Conquered people kept own religions, languages, still paid tribute; he freed Hebrews and allowed them to rebuild the Temple of Jerusalem. There were fewer revolts and people lived in peace.
Darius I - Persian Empire
Following Cyrus's death a weak ruler took over. Darius followed this weak ruler - squashing the revolts that had risen due to the weak ruler. Darius conquers lands as far as India. Persian Empire grew to 2,800 miles from east to west. He divided his empire into provinces to govern it more effectively.
Provinces - Persian Empire
areas of land similar to states, each with a local government. Darius divided empire into 20 provinces.
Satraps - Persian Empire
Governors who ran provinces, collected taxes. Darius appointed military commanders for each satrap. Spies called "Kings eyes and ears" helped Darius control satraps
Darius's legacy - Persian Empire
Used the Royal Road for government purposes as a way to unite the empire. Royal messages were sent by a relay of horseback messengers; it stretched from Sardis to Susa; moved troops, mail, and promoted trade.
Darius set up a law code based on Hammurabi's and used minted coins.
Short Answer Questions: What empire do you admire most and why?
I admire the Akkadian empire because it was the first one. The emperor was Sargon. He took over northern and southern Mesopotamia and the empire lasted for 200 years.
Short Answer Question: Which of Hammurabi's code (Babylonian Empire) of law do you agree with most and why?
I agree with justice for all because it is good to have rights for every single person in the empire. I also liked eye for an eye, tooth for a tooth, and life for life. That means whatever harm you caused someone, the same thing should happen to you.
Short Answer Question: What methods did Hammurabi use to establish and maintain effective control over his huge empire?
Hammurabi's method was to appoint governors, tax collectors, judges to control lands; they watched over agriculture, trade, construction.
Short Answer Question: Why were the Assyrians (Assyrian Empire) able to create a huge empire?
Because they conqured many lands and people.
Short Answer Question: In what way were Cyrus and Darius alike in what they accomplished for Persia?
They both accompolished big things. Cyrus was fair, loving, and good to his people. He ruled his people with toleration and let them keep their religion. Darius started the use of the Royal road for easier transportation and communication access.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Early Empires of Mesopotamia
Chapter 4 - Early Empires
Chapter 2, Section 2
Mesopotamia-7th Grade World History
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