AP US Government Unit 2: The American Population, Politics (Polls, Ideology, Elections), and the Media
Terms in this set (79)
Current American Population
Most Populous Ethnic Minority in US
Hispanics/Latinos (OVERTOOK AFRICAN-AMERICANS)
Fastest Growing Ethnic Minority in US
Age Trend in US
Family Size Changes in US
Decreasing, Fewer children, More one-parent households
Public Opinion Polls
Interviews/surveys with samples of citizens that are used to estimate the feelings and beliefs of the entire population. Based on a particular issue/set of issues at any point in time.
One of the earliest developers of scientific methods for public opinion polling and a proponent for a strong role for the voice of the public in politics and government.
Polls taken for the purpose of providing information on an opponent that would lead respondents to vote against that candidate. Some questions in the polls are untruthful. PUSH POLLS PUSH POLITICAL PROPAGANDA.
Divides the pop. into subgroups weighted by the demographic characteristic of the nat population.
Gives each person in a group an equal chance of being selected. WE USE THIS.
Continuous surveys that enable a campaign/news organization to chart a candidate's daily/weekly rise or fall in support. Introduced in 1992 and is taken with phones.
Polls randomly conducted on as voters leave selected polling places on Election Day. Helps media predict the outcome of key races.
Margin of Error
A measure of the accuracy of a public opinion poll within statistical parameters. Can come from sampling errors, or errors resulting from the size/quality of a survey sample.
Why do polls do a bad job of measuring intensity on respondents' opinions?
Feelings of national issues are more intense than questions about the Electoral College or absentee ballot laws.
The coherent set of values and beliefs about the purpose and scope of government. The four functions that attribute to ideologies are: orientation, political program, explanation, and evaluation.
Favor limited gov intervention in foreign affairs, low taxes, and a balanced budget.
Those who believe government power should be used to uphold traditional and moral feelings and beliefs.
People who favor greater gov intervention (economic affairs in the provision of social services) and want gov to change the political, social, and economic status quo and faster equality development and well being off individuals.
People who take a relatively central view on most political issues.
The process through which individuals acquire their political beliefs, views, and values. Demographics, family, media, peers, and political leaders influence this.
Some important influences on school-age children's political views:
Daily education, peers/friends, family, parents, and college's crit thinking
An organized group that may include office holders, activists, candidates, and voters who pursue their common interests by gaining and exercising power through the electoral process.
Advocates of Federalism/Constitution, industrialists, tariff advocates (trade protection), and tied with Britain (Hamilton and Adam)
Advocates of confederation (AoC), agregarians, free trade, and tied with France (Jefferson)
Democratic Party/Jacksonian Democracy
Successors to Democratic-Republicans because of the Federalists dissolution
Henry Clay's Whig Party and the Republican Party
Federalists dissolution=Whigs, Whigs slavery conflict=Republicans
Political Machines and the Golden Age of Politics (Civil War to Great Depression)
A party organization that recruits voter loyalty with tangible incentives and is characterized by a high degree of control over member activity (Civil War to Great Depression).
Candidate-Centered Politics (Post-WWII)
Politics that focus on the candidates, their particular issues, and character rather than party affiliation (Post-WWII due to party system weakening).
elections that signal a party realignment through voter polarization around new issues and personalities.
Dramatic shifts in partisan preferences that drastically alter the political landscape.
Attend national party conventions every 4 yrs and votes for the party's presidential and vice presidential nominees and help to adopt a party platform.
Delegates to the Democratic Party's national convention that is reserved for a party official and whose vote at the convention is unpledged to a candidate. both parties auto seat superdelegates by virtue of party niche.
National Party Platforms
a party document, written at a national convention, that outlines and contains party philosophy, principles, and positions on major issues. Promote Public Policy.
Some important minor parties in American History
Green Party (Environment/Ecology Protection and Conservation and Social Justice), Reform Party (Economic Issues), Liberty Party (No Slavery), and Prohibition Party (Prohibition).
How can minor party candidates affect the results of the winner-take-all election system?
By incorporating new ideas, alienated groups, taking over when majority groups' trusts declines in the electorate, or majority parties promote minority party's ideas.
Presence of increasingly conflicting and divided viewpoints between the Democratic and Republican Parties.
Citizens eligible to vote. Elections confirm electorate pop sovereignty and free reg elections guarantee mass electorate/political action.
Who decides most of the rules for fed, state, and local administration of elections. (date, time, type, eligibility requirements, etc)
Voters decide which candidates within a party will represent the party in the general elections. (Closed and Open).
Open Primary Election
Allow independents and other party members to participate.
Closed Primary Elections
Allow only a party's registered voters to vote. Healthier b/c of no outside influence.
A secondary primary election between the two candidates receiving the greatest amount of votes in the first primary. CONGRESSIONAL.
Election in which voters decide which candidates will actually fill elective public offices.
Allows citizens to propose legislation or state amendments by submitting them to the electorate for popular vote.
State legislature submits proposed legislation or state amendments to the voters for approval.
Elections in which voters can remove an incumbent from office prior to the next scheduled election.
Presidential General Election Day
On the Tuesday after the first Monday in November.
Oldest, most party-orientated method of choosing delegates to national conventions. Closed, now open. Participants learn about the party's platform and policies and hear speeches to cast the vote.
Who directly elects the president?
Electors in the electoral college.
Is it possible to win the pge wo/ having the most popular votes?
Yes (1824, 1876, 1888, 2000, and 2016)
The current officeholder who is seeking reelection.
Why may an incumbent win reelection?
Staff/Constituent Support,, Visibility/Great Reputation, and Taunting candidates
Why may an incumbent lose reelection?
Redistricting, scandals, pres coattails, and mid-terms
When successful presidential candidates carry into office congressional candidates of the same party in the year of the election. Effect has declined.
How often do we have a national election?
Every 2 years
An election that takes place in the middle of a presidential term. Congressional Election and can hurt an incumbent's party (losing seats and reputation).
Makes a career out of running or advising political candidates.
GOTV/Get out the Vote
A push at the end of a political campaign to encourage supporters to go to the polls. Social Media helps this!
The most powerful predictor of voter choice
Party Identification (Ideology)
Relationship between income and voter's tendency to turnout
High Income=More chance to turnout
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Increased minority voter participation. Removed poll taxes and literacy tests.
Democrat Ethnic Voter Base
Jews, African Americans, Hispanics/Latinos, Chinese, and Indians
Democrat Sex Voter Base
Republican Ethnic Voter Base
Whites, older Vietnamese people
Republican Sex Voter Base
Irony of the 26th Amendment
Young people are less likely to vote, even though they protested for the right during the Vietnam War.
Religious Voter Impact
Religious=More likely and often to vote
The news media's very important impact (Digital or not, big or small) on US politics.
Yellow Journalism (19th Century)
A tragic, negative, or horrible story, written by journalists (ex: Pulitzer and Hearst) because people want the bad news and is used as an "advertising agent" because it is vogue.
A vogue journalism devoted to exposing gov, business, and politicians. Muckrakers were journalist crusaders that used muckraking to start progressivism in 1902.
FDR gets on the radio for podcasts to broadcast his message out to America , especially during the Great Depression.
C-SPAN (Cable Satellite Public Affairs Network)
A basic cable channel that offers gavel-to-gavel coverage of congressional proceedings, as well as major political events when Congress is out of session.
How do most Americans consume news?
1. Cable TV News,
2. Social Media,
3. Local TV
How do millennials get most of their political news?
How do baby boomers get most of their political news?
The process of forming the list of issues to be addressed by government. The process can be affected by the people.
Constitutional doctrine that prevents the government from prohibiting speech or publication before the fact (ex pre facto); generally held to be in violation of the First Amendment.
Equal Time Rule
An FCC rule that requires broadcast stations to sell air time equally to all candidates in a political campaign if they choose to sell it to any.
TV programming that blends political news and information with entertainment. Exploded as a way for citizens to engage w/ the political process. (Ex: Stephen Colbert and Trevor Noah).