Land Management and Population
Terms in this set (49)
Tragedy of the Commons
the tendency of a shared, limited resource to become depleted because people act from self-interest for short-term gain
land used for houses, businesses, industry, and roads
land that contains relatively few people and large areas of open space
the resources that are produced by natural and artificial ecosystems
all of the things that a society builds for public use
rapid expansion of a city into the countryside around the city
land that is poorly suited for building
urban heat island
The increased air temperatures in urban areas due to heat absorption as contrasted to the cooler surrounding rural areas.
lowered temps around vegetation due to evaporating water from leaves
reducing the continuity of natural habitat by developing pieces of land- "patchwork quilt" effect
Any unwanted or discarded material that is not a liquid or a gas.
polluted water that contains human waste, garbage, and other household wastewater
a treatment technology involving destruction of waste controlled burning at high temperatures
non-point source pollution
pollution that is difficult to trace to original or unidentified source
point source pollution
Pollutants discharged from a single identifiable location (e.g., pipes, ditches, channels, sewers, tunnels, containers of various types).
Partially decomposed organic plant and animal matter used as a soil conditioner or fertilizer.
a series of activities that reuse a products raw materials to manufacture new products
all the members of the same species that live in the same place at the same time
the number of individuals per unit area or volume
birth rate - death rate
the study of population
higher average incomes, slower population growth diverse industrial economies and stronger social support systems
lower average incomes, simple and agriculture-based economies, and rapid population growth
change in growth rates and population over time ; economy stabilizing
the distribution of individuals among different ages in a population
total fertility rate
The average number of children born to a woman during her childbearing years.
infant mortality rate
amount of babies that die in their first year
the age at which half of the population is older and half is younger
the number of years a person can expect to live
Replacement level fertility
the number of children a couple must have to replace themselves (2.1 developed, 2.7 developing)
movement of individuals out of a population
Migration to a new location
Law of Tolerance
The existence, abundance, and distribution of a species in an ecosystem are determined by whether the levels of one or more physical or chemical factors fall within the range tolerated by the species.
density dependent factors
sickness, food supply, competition
weather , natural disasters
the maximum number of offspring that a given organism can produce; increased by having offspring earlier , reproducing more often
limited population growth
external causes that prevent population explosions
The largest population that an area can support
biotic potential/ sigmoid growth curve
theoretical number of offspring that can be reproduced
a growth curve that depicts exponential growth because environmental resistance is removed
how is species cluster beneficial?
helps to mate, hunt, defend
what is the point of age pyramids ?
to address the needs of different age groups in the population
How does evapotranspiration work?
it cools down an area by planting more trees to release water
How can habitat fragmentation due to land development disrupt an ecosystem?
The habitat cannot support as large or diverse a population.
what affects the success rate of a country
food, water, education, fuel, disease
low infant mortality rate
median age of 46
life expectancy of 53
high total fertility rate
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