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70 terms

Cell Division

STUDY
PLAY
Previously existing
the cells that make up each organism arise from ______ cells
mitosis
the forming of 2 identical cells from the division of a single cell
grow and maintain
all cells ____&_____ themselves
chromosomes
the carriers of genetic info
DNA
long molocule that carries all the genetic info
no
is there stopping & starting between the stages of mitosis?
telophase
last stage of mitosis
mitosis
basis for cloning
overload
when a cell cannot meet its demands due to its size
ratio of surface area to volume
what causes a cell to divide?
volume
increases faster than surface area
divide
what a cell does before it becomes too big
dna replication
what happens before a cell divides
grow
reason1 why a cell divides
replace damaged cells
reason2 why a cell divides
histone
protein that along with DNA makes up chromosomes
chromatin
long and intertwined chromosomes
chromatid
single strand of a double stranded chromosome
centromere
holds chromatids together
division
the only time chromosomes can be seen
mitosis
deals with all cells except gametes
gametes
sex cells
diploid
2n
full chromosome #
diploid
interphase
stage a cell spends most of its life in
G1
phase of cell growth and normal cell function
s
phase of DNA replication
G2
phase when things required for cell division are built
M
mitosis and cytokinesis
interphase
nuclear membrane and nucleolus are both present. chromatin is present
prophase
nuclear membrane and nucleolus disapear
lysosomes
digest nuclear membrane and nucleolus
histone protein
what dna wraps around to from chromosomes form chromatin
aster
centrioles with astral rays
polar fibers
fibers formed from aster to aster
kinetochore
fibers formed from aster to the middle of the cell
traction
another name for kinetochore
spindle
entire structure formed during prophase
metaphase
chromosomes line up in the middle of the cell
centromere
the part of the chromosome where the traction fibers attach
anaphase
centromere splits single stranded chromosomes move to the sides of the cell
telophase
spindle disapears
animal cell
during cytokinesis, the type of cell that pinches apart
plant cell
during cytokinesis, the type of cell that divides by the formation of a cell plate
asexual
reproduction in which the parent is cloned
binary fission
taking a unicellular organism and splitting it in 1/2
bacteria
example of binary fission
budding
a lump of tissue forms on the side of the parent and continues to grow until fully developed and either stays attached or splits off
sponges coral and anenome
example of budding
spore formation
spore is released from parent, becomes airborn, and eventually diosits and develpos into cell organism.
spore formation
how all fungi reproduce
mold mushroom and ringworm
examples of spore formation
vegetative propagation
cloning of plants
runners on strawberry plants and potatoes w/ eyes
examples of vegetative propagation
meiosis
cell division that produces gametes
haploid
1n
gametogenesis
process of creating gametes
spermatogenesis
process of creating sperm cells
oogenesis
process of creating ovum cells
spermatids
develop into sperm cells
4
number of spermatids at the end of spermatogenesis
1
number of ovum at the end of oogenesis
egg
another name for ovum
second polar bodies
other three things left after oogenesis
die
what the second polar bodies do
telophase II
last phase of meisosis
telophase I
middle phase of meiosis
cleavage
The process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane;
Cleavage furrow
the first sign of cytokinesis during cell division in an animal cell; a shallow groove in the cell surface
genetic variation
perk of sexual reproduction