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The 18th century Pietists and Methodists stressed

The inner spiritual experience of ordinary persons as distinct from the doctrines taught and debated in theological faculties

Characteristics of 18th century Freemasonry

Well disposed towards reason, progress, toleration, humane reforms, and the belief of God as architect of the universe; brought people of all classes together in their lodges; feared because of its secrecy

The 18th century Philosophes were a group of writers who

Were not philosophers, but social or literary critics

The Enlightenment of the 18th century referred to the

Sense of progress universal among the educated classes, which included many modern ideas which are still valued today

During the 18th century, enlightened people typically imagined God as

A Watchmaker or the First Cause of the physical universe

Montesquieu's influential doctrine of the separation and balance of powers suggested that good government could be obtained by

An ingenious mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy and by a separation of the functions of the executive, legislature, and judiciary

Rousseau's main direct contribution to the French Revolution was to

estrange the French upper classes from their own mode of life, and make them lose faith in their own superiority

Enlightened despotism had the least success in reforming society in


Under Catherine the Great, serfdom in Russia

Culminated, meaning that serfs in Russia were treated similarly to slaves in America

In Russia, the Enlightenment did all of the following

Continued the westernization so forcibly pushed forward by Peter the Great and carried further the estrangement of the Russian upper classes from their own people and their own native scene

The British Act of Union in 1801 caused

The creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which lasted until 1922

Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" argued for

A free market, a lasseiz faire government when it came to economic affairs, and the reduction of guild barriers

Voltaire's famous polemical slogan, "Ecrasez l'infeme" referred to

Bigotry, intolerance, and superstition and behind these the power of an organized clergy

In order to watch over the whole structure of his enlightened reform, Joseph II created

A secret police, whose agents, soliciting the confidential aid of spies and informers, reported on the performance of government employees or on the ideas and actions of nobles, clergy, or others from whom trouble might be expected

Enlightened despotism grew out of earlier absolutism represented, for example, by Louis XIV. However, the typical enlightened despot differed from his unenlightened predecessor

In attitude and tempo; did not believe in divine right to the throne, often did not emphasize dynastic rights, and justified their authority on the grounds of usefulness to society

Maria Theresa undertook a program of internal consolidation of her empire in which she broke the power of local governments and guild monopolies, except in


The practical difficulties of the French monarchy could largely be traced to

Its methods of raising revenue (lack of taxation for the nobles, poor government, etc)

Toward the end of Louis XV's reigh, Maupeou, his chief minister, carried out the drastic measure of abolishing the old parlements, or courts, and creating new ones. These "Maupeou parlements"

Involved the judges having no property rights and confined to purely judicial functions, laws and procedure more uniform throughout the country, and attempted to tax the privileged groups

Pugachev's rebellion in Russia in 1773 concerned

The welfare of serfs in Russia

In reaching a judgment of Catherine, one can say that

Although her methods were ruthless, they were necessary considering the circumstances. For example, unscrupulous expansion was the accepted practice of the time, and no ruler could correct Russia's social evils

The "Democratic Revolution" rejected

Universal suffrage and a welfare state, it only wanted the elimination of aristocracy and a demand for liberty and equality

Edmund Burke, who virtually founded modern philosophical conservatism, favored

An independent and responsible House of Commons, members of parliament following their own judgment, not the beliefs of others

In foreign affairs, Catherine's achievements included

A successful war with the Turks, taking parts of Byelorussia in Poland, and established Potemkin villages to impress Joseph II

The great French Encyclopedia, completed between 1751-1772

It was a great compendium of scientific, technical, and historical knowledge. First to have a distinguished list of contributors, and served as a positive force for social progress

The 18th century Enlightenment embodied the idea of


Enlightened thinkers generally believed in progress, reason, science, and civilization, but they also took divergent and inconsistent positions. All of the following are true

The three main philosophes differed considerably, most agreed with Voltaire because they favored more tolerance for intellectual differences and more equality in European societies

Frederick the Great did all of the following

Participated in the partitions of Poland, wrote memoirs and histories, rebuilt his shattered country, promoted agriculture and industry, training his army, but still unable to fix the social stratification in the Prussian society

Facts about Enlightened Despotism

Grew out of earlier forms of absolutism, said little about divine right, and justified their rule as 'I'm the best for the job'

Ideas of Rousseau

Society is the root of all evil, the best traits of human character came from nature, impulse is more reliable than considered judgment, the general will was sovereign, and government was secondary

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