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Chapter 8 Test

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The 18th century Pietists and Methodists stressed
The inner spiritual experience of ordinary persons as distinct from the doctrines taught and debated in theological faculties
Characteristics of 18th century Freemasonry
Well disposed towards reason, progress, toleration, humane reforms, and the belief of God as architect of the universe; brought people of all classes together in their lodges; feared because of its secrecy
The 18th century Philosophes were a group of writers who
Were not philosophers, but social or literary critics
The Enlightenment of the 18th century referred to the
Sense of progress universal among the educated classes, which included many modern ideas which are still valued today
During the 18th century, enlightened people typically imagined God as
A Watchmaker or the First Cause of the physical universe
Montesquieu's influential doctrine of the separation and balance of powers suggested that good government could be obtained by
An ingenious mixture of monarchy, aristocracy, and democracy and by a separation of the functions of the executive, legislature, and judiciary
Rousseau's main direct contribution to the French Revolution was to
estrange the French upper classes from their own mode of life, and make them lose faith in their own superiority
Enlightened despotism had the least success in reforming society in
France
Under Catherine the Great, serfdom in Russia
Culminated, meaning that serfs in Russia were treated similarly to slaves in America
In Russia, the Enlightenment did all of the following
Continued the westernization so forcibly pushed forward by Peter the Great and carried further the estrangement of the Russian upper classes from their own people and their own native scene
The British Act of Union in 1801 caused
The creation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, which lasted until 1922
Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations" argued for
A free market, a lasseiz faire government when it came to economic affairs, and the reduction of guild barriers
Voltaire's famous polemical slogan, "Ecrasez l'infeme" referred to
Bigotry, intolerance, and superstition and behind these the power of an organized clergy
In order to watch over the whole structure of his enlightened reform, Joseph II created
A secret police, whose agents, soliciting the confidential aid of spies and informers, reported on the performance of government employees or on the ideas and actions of nobles, clergy, or others from whom trouble might be expected
Enlightened despotism grew out of earlier absolutism represented, for example, by Louis XIV. However, the typical enlightened despot differed from his unenlightened predecessor
In attitude and tempo; did not believe in divine right to the throne, often did not emphasize dynastic rights, and justified their authority on the grounds of usefulness to society
Maria Theresa undertook a program of internal consolidation of her empire in which she broke the power of local governments and guild monopolies, except in
Hungary
The practical difficulties of the French monarchy could largely be traced to
Its methods of raising revenue (lack of taxation for the nobles, poor government, etc)
Toward the end of Louis XV's reigh, Maupeou, his chief minister, carried out the drastic measure of abolishing the old parlements, or courts, and creating new ones. These "Maupeou parlements"
Involved the judges having no property rights and confined to purely judicial functions, laws and procedure more uniform throughout the country, and attempted to tax the privileged groups
Pugachev's rebellion in Russia in 1773 concerned
The welfare of serfs in Russia
In reaching a judgment of Catherine, one can say that
Although her methods were ruthless, they were necessary considering the circumstances. For example, unscrupulous expansion was the accepted practice of the time, and no ruler could correct Russia's social evils
The "Democratic Revolution" rejected
Universal suffrage and a welfare state, it only wanted the elimination of aristocracy and a demand for liberty and equality
Edmund Burke, who virtually founded modern philosophical conservatism, favored
An independent and responsible House of Commons, members of parliament following their own judgment, not the beliefs of others
In foreign affairs, Catherine's achievements included
A successful war with the Turks, taking parts of Byelorussia in Poland, and established Potemkin villages to impress Joseph II
The great French Encyclopedia, completed between 1751-1772
It was a great compendium of scientific, technical, and historical knowledge. First to have a distinguished list of contributors, and served as a positive force for social progress
The 18th century Enlightenment embodied the idea of
Modernity
Enlightened thinkers generally believed in progress, reason, science, and civilization, but they also took divergent and inconsistent positions. All of the following are true
The three main philosophes differed considerably, most agreed with Voltaire because they favored more tolerance for intellectual differences and more equality in European societies
Frederick the Great did all of the following
Participated in the partitions of Poland, wrote memoirs and histories, rebuilt his shattered country, promoted agriculture and industry, training his army, but still unable to fix the social stratification in the Prussian society
Facts about Enlightened Despotism
Grew out of earlier forms of absolutism, said little about divine right, and justified their rule as 'I'm the best for the job'
Ideas of Rousseau
Society is the root of all evil, the best traits of human character came from nature, impulse is more reliable than considered judgment, the general will was sovereign, and government was secondary