Site of the opening engagement of the Civil War. On December 20, 1860, SouthCarolina had seceded from the Union, and had demanded that all federal propertyin the state be surrendered to state authorities. Major Robert Andersonconcentrated his units at Fort Sumter, and, when Lincoln took office on March 4,1861, Sumter was one of only two forts in the South still under Union control.Learning that Lincoln planned to send supplies to reinforce the fort, on April 11,1861, Confederate General Beauregard demanded Anderson's surrender, which wasrefused. On April 12, 1861, the Confederate Army began bombarding the fort, whichsurrendered on April 14, 1861. Congress declared war on the Confederacy the next
-Conf: P.T Beauregard
-Union: Irwin McDowell
*Lincoln tells Gen. McDowell to invade Richmond
Conf. spy Rose Greenwald tells Conf. Gen. Beauregard about plan
Union: 35,000 troops
Conf.: 20,000 troops
Union drove Conf. back 1 mile
Gen. Thomas Jackson refused to retreat, known as "Stonewall Jackson", and hestopped the Union advanceConfederate replacements arrive, attack, Union retreats
* importance of Manassas: Manassas was an important rail road junction, IfMcDowell seized it, he wold control the best rout to Richmond.
* The Confederates waited the Union Along a creek called Bull Run closed to thetown of Manassas. Lead by Confederate General Pierre G.T. Beauregard. 22,000troops.When Beauregard asked for assistance, General Joseph E. Johnston came with 10,000 troops and arrived on July 21, 1861.
* McDowell's slow progress allowed the Confederates to reinforce their army-Southern troops were transported by train to battle.
*results of the Battle of Bull Run:
Lincoln called for regular army of 500,000 for 3 years
Union blockade of Southern ports begins
Eastern Union army command given to Gen. McClellan
South believes they can easily defeat the North
November 19, 1863
Lincoln delivered a famous speech at the
dedication of the cemetery for those killed during the battle of Gettysburg. Lincoln started his speech saying, "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal." He ended his speech saying, "we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain -- that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom -- and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth."
Sep 18~20 1863
-Conf: Braxton Bragg
-Union: William Rosecrans
confederate victory, union surprised by confederate calvary, union
slowly pushed back away from Chickamauga creek, Union retreated
after confederate rush through large field
Most significant Union loss, surrounding heights belonged to
confederacy, costly victory, 34,624 deaths (16,170 union, 18,454
Railroad center in Chickamauga Georgia, Near Chattanooga TN (just
south of it)
Nov 23 1863
-Union: Ulysses S. Grant
-Conf: Braxton Bragg
the battle would play a crucial part in who would win the Civil War, the battle stretched out from September 18th through November 25,1863, winning the battle opened up the doors for the Union forces to invade and head into the South where they could capture the city of Atlanta right before the elections that year, the leaders Grant and Thomas did not care for each other at all. It began on November 23, 1863, and when the fighting stopped, Union forces had driven Confederate
troops away from Chattanooga, Tennessee, into Georgia, setting the stage for Union General William T. Sherman's triumphant "March to the Sea" a year later.
*It was a strategic victory because of the town's steamboat port and railway station.
*Their fate changed in mid-October with the fresh leadership of Major General George Thomas. Shortly thereafter, Major General Joseph Hooker moved into the area with 20,000 Union soldiers. Union General Ulysses S. Grant followed. He ordered Union engineers to construct a pontoon bridge west of town, giving the army access to shipments of food and ammunitions once again. When General Sherman arrived with 17,000 more men in mid-November, the Union Army was ready to fight. On November 23, Thomas's troops overtook Confederates occupying Orchard Knob, between Chattanooga and the mountains. The next day, in what is known as the "battle above the clouds," Hooker drove his men on to victory at Lookout Mountain. Some of the bloodiest fighting took place there at Cravens House. On November 25, the last day of the battle, the Union Army crushed the Rebel line, forcing the Rebels to retreat further south into Georgia and, ultimately,
to their final defeat in the Civil War.
*Bragg was replaced soon after the Battle of Chattanooga; one of the reason that the Confederacy failed because Confederate was lead by an unpopular leader.
After burning Atlanta, Sherman marched his army to Savannah. His
troops destroyed everything of value within a 60-mile-wide path.
Houses, fields, hay, and food supplies were burned or destroyed. Any
animals that could not be used or taken were killed and left on the
roads. Savannah was captured on December 24th 1864. From there,
Sherman turned north and destroyed all opposition in the Carolinas
before marching to Raleigh, North Carolina where he awaited Grant's
final attack on Richmond. He set fire to South Carolina's capital,
*Impact: Total over one fifth of Georgia was destroyed, 20,000 were
slaughtered or taken, and over 20 million pounds of food was taken. This made the Southern soldiers lose their will to fight;
the slaves followed Sherman's army.