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What agent or mechanism plays a key role in exfoliation and spheroidal weathering of rocks at Earth's surface due to erosion of overburden and reduction in pressure?
Type of sediment gravity flow that consists of a plastic slurry of poorly sorted clastic grains mixed with water
The ability of moving fluids to entrain resting particles from the base of a stream channel is a practical consequence of...
Iron rich mineral that is used for paleoenvironmental interpretation
spherical to sub spherical coated grains of calcium carbonate similar in shape and internal organization to ooids, but coarser...
soiling forming factors that hasten the rate of soil development?
permeable unconsolidated parent material
warm humid climate
when a rapid Flow suddenly decreases to a tranquil flow, there is an abrupt change known as ____
What is the diameter of silt clasts?
4um to 62 um
How do grains flow in a debris flow?
flow is viscous (low Reynolds) and the clasts are supported largely by grain to grain contact. ends up being poorly sorted or reversely sorted.
how do grains flow in a turbidity current?
clasts supported largely by fluid turbulence, so, as flow slows, the largest grains settle out first resulting in a graded deposit
What are intraclass and how do they form?
formed by the pelleting activities of organisms that ingest calcium carbonate during feeding. Large! sand to gravel sized
what is a wackestone
mud supported carbonate. more than 10% grains but also more than 15% matrix.
sandstone with more than 15% matrix and predominately feldspars.
what does it mean when there are a lot of feldspars in a rock?
That rock has not experienced much chemical weathering... low precipitation and arid setting
asymmetrical waves v. current ripples
asymmetrical waves form crests
what are the four types of chemical weathering?
hydration and dehydration
What is dissolution?
chemical weathering where acidic water dissolves rock
what is hydration and dehydration?
gain or loss of water molecules from a mineral, resulting in the formation of a new mineral.
What is hydrolysis?
the chemical breakdown of a compound due to reaction with water.
What is oxydation-reduction?
oxydation- where an atom loses electrons
reduction- when an atom gains electrons
What is the size of sand particles?
difference between conglomerates and breccia?
conglomerates are rounded and breccia's are angular
unimodal v. bimodal v. polymodal
single modal size classes
2 modal size classes
more than 2 classes
tillite v. tilloid
tillite= glacial origin
tillloid= debris or grain-flow
weathering v. erosion
weathering= when rocks are broken down at earths surface
erosion= processes that loosen and move soil and rock downhill
fossil soil that has been buried and preserved in ancient rock
O, A, E, B, C, parent material
What does Reynolds number predict?
Whether flow is laminar(slow) or turbulent(high)
what does froude number measure
relates the velocity of the water to the speed at which a wave can be transmitted through water
What is Bernoulli's principle?
as the speed of a fluid increases, the pressure within the fluid decreases
Types of sediment transport
rolling, saltation, suspension
What is liquefaction?
when a mixture of sediment and water is subject to a high energy vibration
Recommended textbook explanations
Applications and Investigations in Earth Science
Dennis G. Tasa
Dennis G. Tasa, Edward J. Tarbuck, Frederick K. Lutgens
Glencoe Earth Science
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