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35 terms

MCAT Hormones

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tropic hormones
stimulate or inhibit other endocrine glands
corticosteroids
endocrine hormones secreted in the adrenal cortex. Four classed include: mineralocorticoids, glucocorticoids, anabolic hormones, and sex hormones
aldosterone
mineralocorticoid, secreted in the adrenal cortex, acts on distal convoluted tubule of kidney to promote sodium-potassium exchange
3 effects of aldosterone
1. to increase urinary excretion of potassium 2.to increase interstitial sodium concentration 3. to increase water conservation
4 effects of glucocorticoid hormones
1. increase blood glucose levels 2. strengthen cardiac muscle contractions 3. increase water retention 4. anti-inflammatory and antiallergic activities
catecholamines
secreted in the adrenal medulla, epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline) act all over the body increase heart rate, raise blood pressure and increase alertness
thyroxine (thyroid hormone, T4)
synthesized in the follicles of the thyroid gland, four atoms of iodine
triiodothyronine (thyroid hormone, T3)
synthesized in the follicles of the thyroid gland, three atoms of iodine
thyroid hormone effects
increase in metabolism, stimulates increased oxygen demand, heat production, and growth and development
Hypothyroidism
inadequate production of thyroid hormone (often patients are overweight and slowed down, physically and mentally)
goiter
result of insufficient supply of iodine, excessive growth of thyroid on anterior of neck stimulated by feedback mechanism
calcitonin
produced in the parafollicular cells of the thyroid, reduces blood calcium concentration and inhibits the normal process of bone resorption
parathyroid hormone
produced in parathyroid glands in responce to low blood calcium, increases bone resorption and consequent calcium release, increases intestinal calcium uptake, and promotes calcium reuptake at the kidney
thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
secreted in the anterior pituitary, stimulates the thyroid gland to secrete thyroid hormone
thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH)
secreted in the hypothalamus, acts on pituitary to release TSH
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)
secreated in anterior pituitary, controls secretion of glucocorticoids, specifically cortisol in the adrenal cortex
corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)
released by hypothalamus, stimulates the pituitary to secrete ACTH
growth hormone (GH)
secreted in the anterior pituitary, stimulates the development of skeletal muscle, bone, and organs in children, also called somatotropin (STH)
prolactin
secreted in the anterior pituitary, stimulates breast development and milk production
antidiuretic hormone (ADH)
synthesized in hypothalamus and stored by the posterior pituitary, acts on kidneys, also called vasopressin
oxytocin
synthesized in hypothalamus and stored by posterior pituitary , released at childbirth
follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)
secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates the growth of one follicle containing several ova
luteinizing hormone (LH)
secreted by the anterior pituitary, stimulates the growth follicle, surge causes ovulation
corpus luteum
ruptured follicle after ovulation, secretes estrogen and progesterone
progesterone
promotes rapid thickening and vascularization of the uterine lining
human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)
secreted from developing placenta, stimulated corpus luteum to continue to secrete estrogen and progesterone
interstitial cell stimulating hormone (ICSH)
name for luteinizing hormone in mature males, stimulates seminiferous tubules to secrete testosterone
testosterone
predominantly male sex hormone, not plentiful until puberty, promotes spermatogenesis, deepening of the voice, growth of facial, axillary, and pubic hair, and enlargement of penis and scrotum
spermatogenesis
the division of spermatogonia within the seminiferous tubules
estrogen
secreted in the follicle, prevents maturation of more than one follicle at a time
insulin
secreted by islets, increases cellular uptake of glucose, promotes formation of glycogen from glucose in liver, reduces glucose concentration in the blood
glucagon
secreted by islets, promotes the breakdown of glycogen in the liver through gluconeogenesis, increases glucose concentrations in the blood
hyperglycemia
excessively high levels of glucose in the blood
hypoglycemia
excessively low levels of glucose in the blood
glycogen
a long carbohydrate polymer that serves a storage form of glucose