40 terms

AP Euro - Reformation in Europe


Terms in this set (...)

Martin Luther
- German Theologian
- 95 Theses (1517)
- Against Indulgences
- Argued For Direct Connection To God Via Scripture
- Opposed Political Dissent
- Opposed German Peasant's War (1525)
- Beliefs Primarily Centered in Central and Eastern Europe and Scandinavia
- Branch of Protestantism Founded on Martin Luther's Teachings
- Central, Eastern, and Northern Europe
John Calvin
- Institutes of the Christian Religion (1536)
- Genevan Consistory
- Predestination
- Supported Political Dissent
- Reform Church
Similarities B/twn Calvinism & Lutheranism
- Both Preached Scriptural Reading As Primary Road To Connecting To God
Differences B/twn Calvinism & Lutheranism
- Calvinism Supported Political Dissent; Lutheranism Did Not
- Calvinism Preached Predestination; Lutheranism Did Not
- Lutheran Ideas Spread To One Distinct Region of Europe; Calvinism Spread To Various Regions & Was Often Tied To Political Discontent
Reasons for the Reformation
- People Heavily Invested in Religion (Integral Part Of Their Daily Lives)
- Ignorance and Corruption in the Church (Indulgences, Pluralism, Clerical Exemption From Taxation)
- History of Dissent in Europe
Ulrich Zwingli
- Swiss Protestant Leader and Thinker (Zurich)
- Agreed With Many Of Luther's Ideas
- Disagreed with Luther on Specifics of Eucharist
- Generally Believed Similar Things: Faith and Scripture Were Only Way To Salvation
- Disagreed About Role of Eucharist (Lutherans - Christ Was "In" The Eucharist, Zwingli - Christ Was Symbolized By Eucharistic Celebration)
German Peasant's Revolt
- Central Holy Roman Empire (1525)
- Aggravated by Crop Failures in 1523 & 1524
- Over 70,000 Peasants Killed By Noble Response
Protestantism & Marraige
- Protestants Saw Marriage As A Sacred Responsibility
- Did Not See Celibacy As Natural (Opposed Celibate Clergy)
- Believed Women Were Subject To Men In Marital Relationships
- Supported Divorce As A Means Of Fixing Extreme Marital Problems
Protestantism & Women
- Convents Were Closed By Protestants
- Condemned Prostitution Due To Belief That Marriage Was The Only Pious Solution For Sexual Lust
- Women's Roles Came To Be Seen As Primarily Related To Marriage
Charles V & Habsburg Rule
- Charles V (1519 - 1556) Inherited Both Spain & Territories W/in the Holy Roman Empire
- Elected Holy Roman Emperor In 1519
- Oversaw Spanish Empire In New World
- Strongly Catholic
Religious Wars
- Switzerland (1520s - 1530s)
- German States (1546 - 1555) (Peace of Augsburg)
- France (1562 - 1598) (Est 2 - 4 Million People Killed)
Peace of Augsburg
- Ended 16th Century Religious Wars In Germany (1555)
- "Whose Realm, His Religion"
- Resulted in Religious Refugees Throughout Germany
Habsburg-Valois Wars
- 1494 to 1559 (a.k.a. - Italian Wars)
- Wars Fought Over Control Of Italian City-States
- Belligerents: France, Holy Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire, England, Scotland, Spain, Swiss Confederation, Saxony, and the Various Italian City-States
Henry VIII
- Tudor King
- King of England Responsible for Founding of Anglican Church (1534)
- Dissolved English Monasteries & Confiscated Church Land
- Enforced Adoption of Anglicanism In Largely Catholic Ireland
Elizabeth I
- Henry VIII's Daughter From Anne Boleyn
- Protestant But Ruled Moderately In Terms Of Religion
- Oversaw English Victory Over Spanish Armada (1588)
- Major Contribution Was Helping To End Large Scale Religious Disunity In England
Protestantism In Eastern Europe
- Protestant Ideas Spread Intermittently To Eastern Europe
- Many Regions Resisted Protestant Influence Out Of Strong Anti-German Sentiment
- Lutherans, Calvinists, & Other Groups Had Trouble Unifying In Places Like Poland (Poland Remained Strongly Catholic)
Council of Trent
- 1545 to 1563
- Called By Pope Paul III To Reform Church
- Reaffirmed The 7 Sacraments
- Gave Equal Validity to Scripture & Church Rulings
- Tried To Improve Corruption Issues
- Decreed Marriage To Be A Publicly Held Event (Ended Tradition of Secret Marriages)
Society of Jesus
- Jesuits
- Founded in 1540 by Ignatius Loyola
- Goal: "To Help Souls"
- Special Obedience To Pope
- Hierarchical
- Responsible For Missionary Activity That Brought Large Parts of Europe Back To Catholicism (Also, Brazil, Japan, & Congo)
St Bartholomew's Day Massacre
- 1572 (Paris)
- Sparked Wave Of Religious Wars In France
- Thousands Killed
Dutch Revolts
- 1568 to 1609
- Began As An Independence Movement Against Habsburgs
- Developed Into Religious War As Well (Habsburgs & Catholics vs Rebels & Protestants)
- Resulted in Union of Utrecht (1581)
- Independence of United Provinces (1609)
European Witchhunts
- Height of Witchhunts, Late 1500s to Mid 1600s
- Centered In Germany, Switzerland, Parts of France, Eastern Europe
- Did Not Develop In Spain or Italy
- Est 40,000 - 60,000 People Executed (Approx 75% Women)
Edict of Nantes
- France (1598)
- Issued By Henry IV
- Ended The French Religious Wars
- Recognized Catholicism As Official Religion of France
- Gave Protection & Some Freedom of Worship to French Huguenots (French Calvinists)
- French Calvinists
- Numbered Approx 2 Million in 1562 (Out Of A Total French Population Of Approx 19 Million)
Henry IV (Navarre)
- King of France (1589 - 1610)
- Politique
- Born Catholic, Raised Protestant, Confirmed Catholic After Assuming French Throne
- Distrusted By Catholics (Fought War Against Catholic League)
- Traitorous To Protestants
- Survived 12 Assassination Attempts (Died By Assassination in 1610)
- Known Posthumously As "Good King Henry"
- Issued Edict of Nantes
Holy Roman Empire Troops Sack Rome
- 1527
- Part of Habsburg-Valois Wars
- Troops of Holy Roman Empire Mutinied & Pillaged Rome (Charles V Could Not Control Them)
- Pope Clement VII Kept Hostage During Month Long Pillage
- Population of Rome Dropped From 55,000 to 10,000 Following
- Approx 1,000 Guards Executed
- 6,000 to 12,000 Roman Citizens Murdered
- Ended The Renaissance in Rome
Thomas Cranmer
Archbishop of Canterbury who influenced King Henry and the direction of the English Ref.
Jan Hus
Bohemian critic of the church (14th century)
Christian Humanist who criticized the church, as well as Luther. Laid the egg that Luther hatched.
Protestants who were largely hated by everyone. Believed in separation of church and state
Philip Melanchthon
Luther's colleague, a Christian Humanist who helped set up schools in newly Lutheran states
Peace of Augsburg
Ended religious wars in Holy Roman Empire. Allowed Princes to decided between Catholicism and Lutheranism (not Calvinism)
Protestant reform group in Netherlands, Scotland, parts of France and England (Puritans)
Two sacraments accepted by protestants
holy communion (Lord's supper) and baptism.
Issue that Luther and Zwingli fought over
communion/Holy Supper
Idea of Calvin that said God determined who would be saved and damned at the beginning of time.
church of England
Phillip II
Most Catholic of Kings. Lost the Netherlands (United Provinces)
Leaders who put welfare of their nation above their religious concerns. Elizabeth and Henry IV are examples of this.