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Ethics - Corrected Quizzes
The Midterm is on December 19th!!
Terms in this set (98)
According to the FIRST PAGE OF THE CHAPTER, in the period from Antiquity to the Middle Ages, the moral life was understood as what?
The response to the question of happiness
How did Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham differ on their definitions of "liberum arbitrium" ("free choice")?
Aquinas said that freedom proceeds from the intellect and the will. William of Ockham said that freedom precedes the intellect and the will.
How does Pinckaers describe "freedom" in each of the two models?
According to Aquinas, freedom is a power that grows and matures. In Ockham's model, freedom is a static power fully formed at birth.
Between what two antagonistic freedoms does the moral life find itself lodged once we adopt a freedom of indifference model?
The Freedom of God and the Freedom of Man
What extreme claim by Ockham shows most vividly the arbitrary nature of goodness in his model of freedom?
If God commanded us to hate him, hating God would become good.
Describe the nature of "bonum" according to the ancients.
"Bonum" combined both 'good' and 'happiness', because happiness is the diffusion of the good.
What is the basis for our "spontaneous yearning for truth, goodness, and happiness?"
Our spiritual nature
How did St. Augustine define the "happy life?"
Joy born of the truth
Explain the role of pain in each of these conceptions of happiness.
Pleasure and pain are contraries which cannot coexist at the same time and in the same respect. Joy, as the attainment of a spiritual good, can come from pain and triumphs even in the presence of pain.
Through what stages does our freedom develop in a Freedom for Excellence model?
Childhood, Adolescence, and Adulthood
Once the issue of Revelation is raised, the first source of moral excellence moves from where to where?
It goes from the "human person" to "God through Christ."
In the "freedom of indifference" model, what becomes the source of morality?
What fundamental change happens to the classical concept of "bonum" as a result of Ockham's model of freedom?
It becomes separated from and opposed to happiness.
Describe the features of pleasure and joy according to Pinckaers.
Pleasure is external, individual, temporary, and contrary to pain.
Joy is internal, communal, lasting, and can exist in the presence of pain or in spite of pain.
What discovery (according to Pinckaers at the end of the chapter) is a decisive step on the way to moral maturity?
Joy beyond our trials
What is the extrinsic principle of the voluntary act?
The Appetible Object
What is the intrinsic principle to act proper to humans?
The Voluntas (The Will)
What is the intrinsic principle to act for an end proper to humans?
The Intellectum (The Intellect)
There is nothing in the intellect which is not first in the what?
A thing can only be willed to the extent that it is what?
What does St. John Damascene add to the mix in the sed contra?
Voluntariness implies reality.
What distinguishes a self-mover from a non-self-mover?
Knowledge of the End
Explain the first objection to Q6 a1 and its resolution.
Objection 1 states that voluntariness requires that the action begin within us but objects move us to act, since our acts have an extrinsic principle, and not an intrinsic one. The Reply to Objection 1 states that not every principle is a first principle, since beginnings in one genus can have beginnings in another genus.
For what two reasons does the principle of objection 2 apply to humans?
We are animals and all of our actions are new.
Explain why the three ways God moves the voluntas are not problems for voluntariness.
None of these ways are actions "of nature", meaning that they are willed by the senses alone. Voluntary Actions are willed by the intellect, and the one who wills the action has "knowledge of the end." Actions that are willed "of nature" are willed by God and therefore involuntary.
What are the two alternatives to willing something (using Latin is fair game)?
Nolo, Non Volo
Why must the act of the voluntas be two-fold?
Because we can will not to do something
In what way does the voluntas differ from other passive principles with respect to motion?
It is reduced freely from potency to act.
What sort of movement is compulsion?
Movement of necessity
In what way can violence be done to the voluntas?
To the act commanded, but NOT to volition.
Define violence as Aquinas uses the word.
Violence is movement of necessity, contrary to nature, by an extrinsic principle, by a stronger-than.
Why can't God compel the voluntas if he is stronger than it?
The voluntary willing of an action must proceed directly from the intellect. If the willing of an action were to proceed from God, it would be an action proceeding from God's wills, NOT ours, and one's will cannot proceed from another's intellect!
How can violence cause involuntariness?
An action can be forced against one's will
Analogy! When an extrinsic principle effects something contrary to nature it is violence; when an extrinsic principle effects something contrary to voluntas it is...what?
Under what condition does a subject compulsion without being grieved thereby?
When the patient wills to be moved (and go along with it, basically surrender)
What is the difference between "not to will" and "to will-not"?
Not to will (Non volo) is when V does not move to will, and to will-not (Nolo) is when the V moves contrary to something
What are the two ways one thing can proceed from another?
Directly (Immediate Effect) and Indirectly (By inaction)
What is the twofold act of the will?
Volition and the act commanded
What part of the act of the voluntas cannot be violated?
If God compels the voluntas, what is replacing the intrinisic principle to act?
The extrinsic principle of God
What reversal happens when a subject wills to suffer compulsion?
It ceases to be involuntary/It ceases to be compulsion no longer grieved by it.
What is the proper object of the voluntas?
What famous medieval doctrine does St. Thomas employ against himself in a1 obj3?
Convertibility of Transcendentals
ST I-II Q8 a1 resp: If the will regards good, then how can it will evil?
The will responds to the object as it is proposed by the intellect.
ST I-II Q8 a1 ad1: what fancy word does St. Thomas invent to describe the relationship of the voluntas to evil?
ST I-II Q8 a2 sed contra: what aspect of voluntary movement does St. Thomas compare to the middle space of a natural movement?
Willing the means
Read carefully: does the act of the voluntas regard means or end?
End (Act vs power)
Why can't the means be willed for their own sake?
They would be end. The end is willed for its own sake.
By what are acts diversified?
What example does St. Thomas give of a man willing an end absolutely and then later willing the means?
Willing health and then later calling for a doctor
Why MUST it be true that the voluntas wills means and end with a two-fold act?
We can will an end without the means. However, we can can only will means for the sake of the end.
ST I-II Q8 a1 resp: In order for the will to tend to any given object, what must be true about it?
It must be perceived as good by the intellect.
Read carefully: does the power of the voluntas regard means or end?
YES, and the power regards both, because we will the means is a power, and we will it for the sake of the end. An act regards the end only.
To what activity of the intellectum does St. Thomas compare a man willing an end absolutely and then later willing the means?
Understanding principles in themselves than later understanding conclusions that follow from them.
Are there evil acts?
What three things constitute the fullness of being of a human act?
Object, circumstances, and end
In what way can we say that an object is evil?
If it is unsuitable for the agent
What is the object of the act of volition?
Regarding object and end, which specifies which?
The object specifies the end
When do we say that the moral action is contained under two species that are disparate, so that a two-fold malice is found in one act?
When the object is accidentally ordained to the end
If good and evil are immediate contraries (and so have nothing between them), how can the object of a human act be indifferent?
If the object does not pertain to the order of reason
Why can't an individual human act be indifferent?
An act specifies an end, and an end can NEVER be indifferent
What is the difference between an essential accident and an accidental accident?
Essential accidents flow directly from and manifest the object, and accidental ones do not.
What is the four-fold goodness of the human act?
(Genus/As an act), Object, Circumstance, End
What constitutes the form of an action, giving it its species?
Why does the end come into play on the good/evil question if it is extrinsic to the act of the will?
It is intrinsic to the act of the will that the act depend on the end.
Does end specify the object or does the object specify the end?
The Object specifies the end
What are the two relations possible between object and end?
Accidentally ordained and essentially ordained
Q19 a1 ad1: How can the goodness of the will depend on the object if the will cannot be directed otherwise than to what is good?
The will is directed to apprehended goods which have some goodness in them.
Q19 a2 ad1: When considering the act of the will, the goodness of the will derived from the object is the same as what?
Goodness derived from the end
Q19 a2 ad2: What are the two ways we may understand the circumstance in the expression "to will a good when one ought not?"
That the willing is ill-timed or the thing to be done is ill-timed
Q19 a3 resp: Why does the goodness of the will depend on reason if it depends only on the object?
It depends on reason in the same way it depends on the object.
Q19 a4 sed contra: What is St. Augustine's definition of sin?
A deed, word or desire against the eternal law.
Q19 a4 ad3: What are the two ways eternal law becomes known to us somewhat?
Reason and Revelation
Q19 a5: What is the definition of conscience that St. Thomas gives?
The application of knowledge to some act
Q19 a5 resp: In what kinds of objects (good, evil, indifferent) does St. Thomas think that erring reason binds?
Q19 a6 obj 3: What dilemma does the objector pose for Thomas's claim that an erring conscience does not excuse?
If it does not excuse, then we sin by following or we sin by not following, so we sin of necessity, which is absurd, since sins MUST be free.
Q19 a6 resp: What kind of ignorance "excuses the will" so that to follow erring reason is not evil?
Q19 a2 resp: Why does the goodness or malice of the act of the will have to depend on just one thing?
The more first a thing is in its genus, the simpler it is and the fewer its principles.
Q19 a4 ad1: How does St. Thomas handle the objection that "to one thing there is one rule and one measure?"
It is true, but there can be a proximate measure ordained to a more remote one.
Q19 a6 resp: When does erring reason not excuse?
When the ignorance is voluntary (or vincible)
Q19 a6 ad3: How does St. Thomas handle the objection that a man not excused by erring conscience would be in a dilemma and sin of necessity?
Set aside the ignorance and be free to do good.
List the 10 commandments
1. Have no gods but God
2. Do not take the Lord's name in vain
3. Keep holy the Sabbath
4. Honor your father and mother
5. Do not kill
6. Do not commit adultery
7. Do not steal
8. Do not lie
9. Do not covet your neighbor's wife
10. Do not covet your neighbor's belongings
What commandment did Hesychius completely omit from his list (he gets back to 10 by splitting another one)?
Observance of the Sabbath
What two commandments did both Hesychius and Origen combine into one?
Coveting of possessions and the wife of the neighbor
What three things are owed to the head of the community according to St. Thomas?
Fidelity, Respect, and Service
In what three kinds of acts can we do harm to a fellow member of the community (recall St. Augustine's definition of sin)?
Deed, Word, Desire
Which commandment governs how we relate to members of the community in particular, in the repayment of debts?
Honor Your Father and Mother
What definition of enjoyment did I tell you to memorize in class and in the study guide?
Enjoyment is to adhere lovingly to a thing for its own sake
Is enjoyment only of the end possessed (briefly explain)?
Not Exactly, since we can ends that lead to more ends and eventually, the last end.
How does intention compare to choice?
Intention is the tending towards an object or an end, and choice is the election of the means by which we reach an end.
Explain how choice is free but NOT indifferent.
Choice is free in the sense that we can will or will not a means, but it is indifferent in the sense that we choose a particular way that ultimately leads to the last end, and there are many means to reach the last end.
What is the analytic process by which we come to know means that can attain the end?
Why can't counsel be of the end?
Counsel is not a PART of the means, which is done for an end, but it DELIBERATES the means (it chooses the good ones.)
In contrast to the order of volition, is the order of execution (external act) analytic or synthetic?
It is synthetic because we apply something through an act to a purpose, or end.
How to consent and choice differ?
Consent regards the embracing of several means and choice is the embracing of ONE means.
How can consent belong to "higher reason" if man often consents to an act not for eternal, but for temporal, reasons?
One can consent a means to reach a temporal end that will ultimately build towards an eternal end.
Why must use be of means and not end?
Use is the application of means to an end. It cannot be of the end because you cannot apply an end to a purpose that proceeds from it, since an end is LAST in some way.
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