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psychology mid term
Terms in this set (83)
Balance and coordination
controls heartbeat and breathing
the part of the brainstem that links the medulla oblongata and the thalamus. sleep and arousel
a nerve network in the brainstem that plays an important role in controlling arousal
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
neural system located below the cerebral hemispheres; associated with emotions and drives
relays messages between lower brain centers and cerebral cortex
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; directs eating, drinking, body temperature; helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion
A limbic system structure involved in memory and emotion, particularly fear and aggression.
A neural center located in the limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage.
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
The intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells covering the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center.
A region of the cerebral cortex whose functions include processing information about touch.
A region of the cerebral cortex that has specialized areas for movement, abstract thinking, planning, memory, and judgement
A region of the cerebral cortex that processes visual information
A region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language.
the large band of neural fibers connecting the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them
areas of tissue that have been pathologically altered by injury, wound, or infection
electroencephalogram eletrical activity on surface of brain
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
Branchlike parts of a neuron that are specialized to receive information.
the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
A layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
A bulb at the end of an axon in which neurotransmitter molecules are stored and released.
the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons
A neurotransmitter that enables learning and memory and also triggers muscle contraction
influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion
Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal
helps control alertness and arousal
a major inhibitory neurotransmitter
A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory
Who created the first psych lab and is considered the father of modern psychology
In a class lecture, Professor Hampton emphasized the extent to which abnormal blood chemistry can contribute to psychological disorders. The professor's lecture highlighted a ________ perspective on psychological disorders.
Ali insists that intellectual skills are inherited; Claire argues that intelligence is developed through educational experiences. there arguement highlights this issue, which is one of the most enduring questions in psychology
nature vs nurture
grandma Mary has a stroke which impairs her ability to speak fluent although she can move all the necessary muscles. what is the most likely location of her brain damaged
Poor nutrition, family stress, and memory difficulties have all contributed to Mr. live on are depression. Effectively explaining the full complexity of his problems requires a________ perspective
name the four research methods that psychologist uses. which one shoes cause and effect relationships
case study, naturalistic, observation, survey, experiment <——
If I wanted to show the heroine use causes grades to drop, which research method would i use
to demonstrate that brain simulation can make a rat violently aggressive, neuroscientist should stimulate the rats___________
amygdala or reticular formation
Dr. Mathew has concluded that very few people in a small African country suffer from alcohol dependence because of the strong influence of their religion. This belief best illustrates a(n) ______________ perspective.
Name 4 major neurotransmitters.
Acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA, glutamate
In a drug-treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a ______________
Explain the difference between agonists and antagonists
Agonists—mimic neurotransmitters•Antagonists—block neurotransmitters
Attempting to understand behavior and personality traits based on the size and shape of someone's skull is known as ______________
Tell me one problem or concern with conducting surveys, or with the information gathered from surveys
Wording effects (answers change based on how questions are asked), correlational data only (don't show cause/effect but people often think it does), LOW response rate (tough to get representative samples), people respond even when they don't know what they're talking about
Heinz shouldn't steal the drug to save his wife because stealing is against the law."
This is an example of which stage of moral development (Kohlberg)?•Stage 4—Law and Order
The process of getting information into memory is called
The part of the neuron that carries electrical impulses away from the cell body.
Your memory of what happened on your 11th birthday is an example of what kind of memory?
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as _______________
Which step in the memory process has the shortest duration?
Which lobe(s) contains association areas?
All of them
Unconsciously encoding incidental information about your day's events best illustrates _________________
After looking up his friend's phone number, Alex was able to remember it only long enough to dial it correctly. In this case, the phone number was most clearly stored in his ____________ memory
Your memory of how to play a musical instrument is an example of a(n) _____________ memory
There are some neurons that fire whether I'm playing baseball or watching someone else play baseball. These neurons are called _____________________
Organizing individual items into larger familiar units (like phone numbers or social security numbers) is called _________________
Explain the difference between the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems
CNS—brain/spinal cord•PNS—all other neurons in the body
To remember a list of the school supplies she needs, Marcy mentally visualizes each item at a certain location in her house. Marcy's tactic best illustrates the use of _____________________
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex (occipital lobe)?
The tendency for distributed study to yield better long-term retention than crammed study is known as ________________
Name 3 methods we have of studying the brain.
Lesions, EEG, PET, CT, MRI, fMRI
What we learn under the influence of a drug may be more easily recalled when we are once again under the influence of that very same drug. This best illustrates ___________________
State dependent memory
Your ability to remember the first and last items from a list best illustrates ________________
Serial position effect
The inability to form new memories is called ___________________
Professor M. has so many memories of former students that she has difficulty remembering the names of new students. The professor's difficulty best illustrates __________________
What do we call patients whose corpus callosum has been severed?
Philippe has just completed medical school. In reflecting on his years of formal education, he is able to recall the names of all his instructors except the fifth-grade teacher who flunked him. According to Freud, his forgetting illustrates _______________
An attorney uses misleading questions to distort a court witness' recall of a previously observed crime. This best illustrates __________________
Misinformation effect (false memories
A deficiency of which neurotransmitter is most closely linked to Alzheimer's disease?
What is the difference between sensory neurons and motor neurons?
Sensory neurons take info to the brain, motor neurons carry info from the brain to the body
What is the difference between neurotransmitters and hormones?
Neurotransmitters found in neurons, hormones travel through bloodstream
Biological/Neuroscience school of psychology
brain and body
evolutionary school of psychology
Psychodynamic school of psychology
behavior school of psychology
behavior that we are able to observe. controlling behavior by consequence (punishment and reinforcement)
humanistic school of psychology
fulfill our potential
cognitive school of psychology
interpret process and remember
social-cultural school of psychology
religion, family structures
Stage 1: Obedience and Punishment
Identify the stage?
-Obey because you are told to obey
-Fear of punishment
-Authority figures dictate good and bad
Stage 2: Instrumental Relativist Orientation
seek rewards for good behavior
Stage 3: Good Boy-Nice Girl Orientation
Individual wants to win approval and maintain the expectations of one's immediate group
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