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World History - Chapter 5 - Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity

World History - Chapter 5 - Ancient Rome and the Rise of Christianity
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Etruscans
they were already highly civilized people who came into Italy around 750 BC. They established a series of small city-states in the northern and central areas of the peninsula, rule over the native Italic people by the virtue of their superior weaponry, architecture (use of the arch) and organization. Etruscan kings ruled over Rome, (monarchy, one ruler)
republic
system of governement in which officials are choosen by the people
patrician
in ancient Rome, member of the landholding upper class
consul
in ancient Rome, official from the patrician class who supervised the governement and commanded the armies
dictator
In ancient Rome, a political leader given absolute power to make laws and command the army for a (6) month times in state of emergency
plebeian
of the common people of ancient Rome; lower class, including farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
tribune
in ancient Rome, an official elected by the plebeians to protect their interest
veto
block of governement action
legion
A military unit of the ancient Roman army, made up of about 5,000 foot soldiers and a group of soldiers on horseback.
imperialism
domination by one country of political, economic, or cultural life of another country or region
latifundia
huge estates bought up by newly wealthy Roman citizens
Tiberius Gracchus
two young plebeians, were among the first to attempt reform in ancient Rome; Tiberius, called on the state to distribute land to poor farmers.
Gaius Gracchus
Tiberius, called on the state to distribute land to poor farmers. Gaius sought wider reforms, including the use of public funds to buy grain to feed the poor; this angered the senate which saw them as a threat to their power; they were killed in waves of street violence set off by senators and their hired tugs
Julius Caesar
Roman general and dictator. Casear set out swith his army to make new conquests; Conquest of Gaul won (now it is France and Belgium); Pompey presuaded the senate to have Caesar disband his army and return to Rome; Caser instead went back to Rome with his army and defeated Prompey. Forced senate to make him dicator. He was murdered by a group of senators and his former friend Brutus who hoped to restore the normal running of the republic.
Augustus
Octavian joined forces with Marc Antony to defeat Caesar; they ended up battling for power; Octavian won and was called the "Exalted One"; Roman statesman who established the Roman Empire and became emperor in 27 BC
census
a periodic and official count of a country's population
Hadrian
One of Rome's "good emperors" codified Roman Law, making it the same for all providences; built a wall across Britian to hold back attackers from the non-Roman north
Virgil
Classical Roman poet, author of Aenied; tried to show that Rome's past was as heroic as Greece;
satirize
To make fun of- The roman poets satirised the Roman Society; Horace's used satirize
mosaic
art consisting of a design made of small pieces of colored stone or glass
engineering
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
aqueduct
artificial channel for conducting water over a distance
Ptolemy
Roman geographer-astronomer and author of Guide to Geography which included maps containing a grid system of latitude and longitude.
messiah
savior, incarnation of God
apostle
(New Testament) one of the original 12 disciples chosen by Christ to preach his gospel
Paul
(New Testament) a Christian missionary to the Gentiles
martyr
one who suffers for the sake of principle
Constantine
Roman Emperor (4th century A.D.) who promoted tolerance to all religions in the Roman Empire and legalized Christianity
clergy
A body of officials who perform religious services, such as priests, ministers or rabbis.
bishop
a clergyman having spiritual and administrative authority
patriarch
A principal bishop in the eastern branch of Christianity
pope
the head of the Roman Catholic Church
heresy
a belief that rejects the orthodox tenets of a religion
Augustine
(Roman Catholic Church) one of the great fathers of the early Christian church
Diocletian
Roman emperor who was faced with military problems, when that happend he decided to divide the empire between himself in the east and maximian in the west. he did the last persecution of the Christians
inflation
a general and progressive increase in prices
Constantinople
Previously known as Byzantium, Constantine changed the name of the city and moved the capitol of the Roman Empire here from Rome.
Huns
Nomadic people from Asia who attacked the Roman Empire.
mercenary
a professional soldier hired by a foreign army