23 terms

APENG Logic Fallacies

Logic Fallacies
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claim
a statement that asserts a belief or truth
warrant
In Toulmin argument, the statement (expressed or implied) that establishes the logical connection between a claim and its supporting reason
premise
a statement or position regarded as true and upon which other claims are based
scare tactic
a fallacy of argument presenting an issue in terms of exaggerated threats or dangers
either-or-choices (False Dilemma)
a fallacy of argument in which a complicated issue is misrepresented as offering only two possible alternatives, one of which is often made to seem vastly preferable to the other
slippery slope (Domino Theory)
a fallacy of argument exaggerating the possibility that a relatively inconsequential action or choice today will have serious adverse consequences in the future. This argues that one thing inevitably leads to another.
sentimental appeal
a fallacy of argument in which an appeal is based on excessive emotion
bandwagon appeal (vox populi)
a fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is following it
false authority
a fallacy argument in which a claim is based on the expertise of someone who lacks appropriate credentials
dogmatism
a fallacy of argument in which a claim is supported on the grounds that it's the only conclusion acceptable within a given community
moral equivalence
a fallacy of argument in which no distinction is made between serious issues, problems, or failings and much lass important ones
Ad Hominem
a fallacy of argument in which a writer's claim is answered by irrelevant attacks on his or her character. An attack on the person rather than the issue at hand
poisoning the well
a person or character is introduced with language that suggests that he is not at all reliable before the listener/reader knows anything about him
tu quoque
"you, also" or "you're another"
hasty generalization
a fallacy of argument in which an inference is drawn from insufficient data
faulty causality, cause and effect (post hoc, ergo proper hoc; "after this, therefore, because of this)
a fallacy of argument making the unwarranted assumption that because one event follows another, the first event causes the second. Faulty causality forms the basis of many superstitions
begging the question
a fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the very grounds that are in doubt or dispute
equivocation
a fallacy of argument in which a lie is given the appearance of truth, or in which the truth is misrepresented in deceptive language
non-sequitor
a fallacy of argument in which claims, reasons, or warrants fail to connect logically; one point doesn't follow another. This literally means "it does not follow." This is an argument by misdirection and is logically irrelevant
straw man
a fallacy of argument in which an opponent's position is misrepresented as being more extreme than it actually is so that it's easier to refute
faulty (false) analogy
a fallacy of argument in which a comparison between two objects or concepts is inaccurate or inconsequential. It uses an inappropriate metaphor
red herring
an argument that distracts the reader by raising issues irrelevant to the case
argument of ignorance
an argument stating that something is true because it has never been proven false.
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