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KES 380 MIDTERM SELF-TALK
Terms in this set (17)
key to cognitive control
anytime you think about something, you are in a sense talking to yourself"
all embracing "thought content"
behavior can be modified by means of specific forms of external and internal talking
used to increase effort, modify mood, control attention, and aid the injury rehabilitation process
technique to alter self statements: cognitive restructuring
Need to recognize self-defeating irrational thoughts and to replace them with more constructive rational ones.
Being able to identify inappropriate self statements and thought patterns and restructure them is an important psychological skill
Self talk reconstructing
1 There's no sense in practicing. I have no natural talent.
-1 I've seen good players who had to work hard to be successful. I can get better if I practice correctly.
3 The coach must think I'm hopeless. He never helps me.
-3 That's not fair. He has a whole team to coach. Tomorrow I'll ask what he thinks I need to work on the most.
Has been operationalized in several different ways
Self efficacy, sport confidence, perceived competence, outcome experiences, and movement confidence
the difference between self efficacy and sport confidence
Self efficacy: microlevel approach, perform specific skills based upon the assumption that such perception of ability can vary greatly
Sport confidence: macrolevel approach , more concerned w/ the global level of self confidence associated with overall performance expectancies in sport (trait sport confidence) and specific competitions (state sport confidence)
Bandura proposed that self efficacy can be assessed along
concerned w/ the individual's expected performance attainment
reflecting the certainty w/ which the individual expects to achieve success
1. performance accomplishments
represent the most powerful effects upon self-efficacy since they are based upon personal mastery experiences.
More positive experiences = higher self efficacy
Success at a difficult task which is independently achieved early in learning will result in greater self-efficacy than success at a simple task with the help of others following the experience of early failures
Having a success, for example in mastering a task or controlling an environment, will build self- belief in that area whereas a failure will undermine that efficacy belief. To have a resilient sense of self-efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles through effort and perseverance.
referring to the number of domains in which the individual considers him/herself efficacious
(i.e. one's belief that a certain level of performance can be attained) are predicted by four factors which are, in descending order of importance:
2. Vicarious Experiences
refers to the information derived from seeing others perform the skill in question.
important source of efficacy information in performers lacking experience of the task at hand, relying upon others in order to judge one's own capabilities.
The second source of self-efficacy comes from our observation of people around us, especially people we consider as role models. Seeing people similar to ourselves succeed by their sustained effort raises our beliefs that we too possess the capabilities to master the activities needed for success in that area.
3. Verbal persuasion -
refers to persuasive techniques used by self or others in order to manipulate behavior.
verbal encouragement and feedback, although important mediating factors include the credibility and expertise of the persuader.
Influential people in our lives such as parents, teachers, managers or coaches can strengthen our beliefs that we have what it takes to succeed. Being persuaded that we possess the capabilities to master certain activities means that we are more likely to put in the effort and sustain it when problems arise.
4. Emotional arousal -
refers to performers' appraisals of their emotional arousal as opposed to their actual physiological states.
the performer's cognitive appraisal or interpretation of the physiological response which will contribute to efficacy expectations,
The state you're in will influence how you judge your self-efficacy. Depression, for example, can dampen confidence in our capabilities. Stress reactions or tension are interpreted as signs of vulnerability to poor performance whereas positive emotions can boost our confidence in our skills.
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