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Anatomy Chapter 5
Site of the spongy bone in the adult
Site of the compact bone in the adult
Site of hematopoiesis in the adult
Scientific name for bone shaft
Yellow marrow cavity
Site of fat storage in the adult
Site of longitudinal growth in a child
When blood calcium levels begin to drop below homeostatic levels, ______ is released, causing calcium to be released from bones.
Mature bone cells, called _____, maintain bone in a viable state.
Disuse of such as that caused by paralysis or sever lack of exercise results in muscle and bone ____.
Large tubercles and/or increased deposit of bony matrix at sites of ____.
Immature, or matrix-depositing, bone cells are referred to as ____.
Stress and/or tension
____ causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts.
Bone cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood are called _____.
Our astronauts must do isometric exercises when in space because atrophy under conditions of weightlessness or lack of ____.
The organs protected by the thoracic cage include the ____ and the ____.
Ribs 1 through 7 are called ___ ribs.
Ribs 8 through 12 are called ___ ribs.
Ribs 11 and 12 are also called ___ ribs.
vertebral column; sternum
All ribs articulate posteriorly with the ____, and most connect anteriorly to the ___, either directly or indirectly.
The general shape of the thoracic cage is _____.
Bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin
Nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone
A break common in children; bone splinters, but break is incomplete
A fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column
A fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin surface
Surgical realignment of broken bone ends
A result of twisting forces
A hematoma usually forms at a fracture site.
Deprived of nutrition, osteocytes at the fracture site die.
Nonbony debris at the fracture site is removed by ___.
Growth of a new capillary supply into the region produces granulation tissue.
Osteoblasts from the ____ migrate to the fracture site.
The fibrocartilage callus is the first repair mass to splint the broken bone.
The bone callus is initially composed of compact bone.
The lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces is ____.
The resilient substance that keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed is ___.
___, which reinforce the fribrous capsule, help to prevent dislocation of the joint.
All have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
Joints between skull bones
Hip, elbow, and knee
All reinforced by ligaments
Often contains a fluid-filled cushion
Child's long-bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage
Most joints of limbs
Have the greatest mobility
In a sprain, the ligaments reinforcing a joint are excessively stretched or torn
Age-related erosion of articular cartilages and formation of painful bony spurs are characteristics of ____.
___ arthritis usually results from bacterial invasion.
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease.
High levels of uric acid in the blood may lead to ____.
A 'soft' bone condition in children, usually caused by a lack of calcium or vitamin D in the diet is called ___.