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51 terms

Anatomy Chapter 5

STUDY
PLAY
Epiphysis
Site of the spongy bone in the adult
Diaphysis
Site of the compact bone in the adult
Red marrow
Site of hematopoiesis in the adult
Diaphysis
Scientific name for bone shaft
Yellow marrow cavity
Site of fat storage in the adult
Epiphyseal plate
Site of longitudinal growth in a child
Parathyroid hormone
When blood calcium levels begin to drop below homeostatic levels, ______ is released, causing calcium to be released from bones.
Calcitonin
Mature bone cells, called _____, maintain bone in a viable state.
Atrophy
Disuse of such as that caused by paralysis or sever lack of exercise results in muscle and bone ____.
Osteocytes
Large tubercles and/or increased deposit of bony matrix at sites of ____.
Osteoblasts
Immature, or matrix-depositing, bone cells are referred to as ____.
Stress and/or tension
____ causes blood calcium to be deposited in bones as calcium salts.
Osteoclasts
Bone cells that liquefy bone matrix and release calcium to the blood are called _____.
Gravity
Our astronauts must do isometric exercises when in space because atrophy under conditions of weightlessness or lack of ____.
lungs; heart
The organs protected by the thoracic cage include the ____ and the ____.
true
Ribs 1 through 7 are called ___ ribs.
false
Ribs 8 through 12 are called ___ ribs.
floating
Ribs 11 and 12 are also called ___ ribs.
vertebral column; sternum
All ribs articulate posteriorly with the ____, and most connect anteriorly to the ___, either directly or indirectly.
inverted
The general shape of the thoracic cage is _____.
Simple fracture
Bone is broken cleanly; the ends do not penetrate the skin
Closed reduction
Nonsurgical realignment of broken bone ends and splinting of bone
Greenstick fracture
A break common in children; bone splinters, but break is incomplete
Compression fracture
A fracture in which the bone is crushed; common in the vertebral column
Compound fracture
A fracture in which the bone ends penetrate through the skin surface
Open
Surgical realignment of broken bone ends
Spiral fracture
A result of twisting forces
true
A hematoma usually forms at a fracture site.
true
Deprived of nutrition, osteocytes at the fracture site die.
phagocytes
Nonbony debris at the fracture site is removed by ___.
true
Growth of a new capillary supply into the region produces granulation tissue.
pariosteum
Osteoblasts from the ____ migrate to the fracture site.
true
The fibrocartilage callus is the first repair mass to splint the broken bone.
spongy
The bone callus is initially composed of compact bone.
synovial fluid
The lubricant that minimizes friction and abrasion of joint surfaces is ____.
articular cartilage
The resilient substance that keeps bone ends from crushing when compressed is ___.
Ligaments
___, which reinforce the fribrous capsule, help to prevent dislocation of the joint.
Synovial
All have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity
Fibrous
Joints between skull bones
Synovial
Hip, elbow, and knee
Synovial
All reinforced by ligaments
Synovial
Often contains a fluid-filled cushion
Cartilaginous
Child's long-bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage
Synovial
Most joints of limbs
Synovial
Have the greatest mobility
true
In a sprain, the ligaments reinforcing a joint are excessively stretched or torn
osteoarthritis
Age-related erosion of articular cartilages and formation of painful bony spurs are characteristics of ____.
Acute
___ arthritis usually results from bacterial invasion.
true
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune disease.
gouty
High levels of uric acid in the blood may lead to ____.
rikits
A 'soft' bone condition in children, usually caused by a lack of calcium or vitamin D in the diet is called ___.