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DeTocqueville's Democracy in America
Aristocrat's study of America. "General equality of condition among the people", wondering about fluidity of American society with the rise of industrialism
Reality of Jacksonian America
didn't create economic equality, didn't challenge slavery, assaulted Indians
Introduction of universal white male suffrage
changes first began in new states. Older states followed. Some resistance- Webster: "power follows property." New Massachusetts's constitution required every voter to be a taxpayer and that governor own considerable real estate. Property qualifications abolished in New York. Rhode Island was too conservative- Dorr rebellion started new gov't. Southern laws favored planters and older counties
"WHD" including Turner, Schlesinger, Hofstadter, and Saxton
Turner encouraged scholars to se Jacksonianism as product of democratic West/protest by frontier people. Schlesinger's Age of Jackson saw support from urban laborers in East- effort to control power of capitalist groups/modern reform effort. Hofstadter said Jackson was spokesman of rising entrepreneurs. Meyer argued Jackson and followers wanted restoration of agrarian, republic past. Benson emphasized role of region and ethnicity. Saxton points to contradiction between image of Jackson expanding democracy and reality of constricted rights for women, blacks, and Indians
Van Buren (& machine politics)
Van Buren led dissident political faction (Bucktails) against established political leadership. Argued only an institutionalized party could ensure genuine democracy
anti-Jackson forces called themselves Whigs, Jackson's followers called themselves Democrats. Nation's oldest political party
embraced theory of democracy offering equal protection and benefits to all white male citizens
Jacksonian Democracy - goals
equal protection and benefits to white male citizens, extended opportunities to West and South, subjugating African Americans and Indians
removed many federal officeholders and replaced them with his supporters. Established right of elected officials to appoint their followers to public office
National nominating conventions
Jackson believed congressional caucus was too elitist. National party conventions nominated candidates. Triumph for democracy
said states were final judges of whether laws were constitutional- ie South Carolina could hold a convention and declare Tariff of 1828 void within the state
Hayne said slowing down growth of West was a way for East to retain power, threatened that South and West could resist tyranny of Northeast. Webster challenged Hayne to debate about states rights versus national power Hayne defended theory of nullification. Webster gave famous "Second Reply". Jackson said Federal Union must be preserved, stopped supporting Calhoun
South Carolina summoned state convention to reply to 1828 and 1832 tariffs. Voted to nullify them and elected Hayne to governor. Jackson said nullification was treason and sent warship to Charleston. South Carohlina had no support.
Compromise Tariff (1833)
Clay averted crisis by compromise by which tariff would be gradually lowered by 1842.
Reasons for Indian removal
feared contact would produce endless conflict and violence. Wanted territory
Black Hawk War
last battle in 1831-32 between white settlers in Illinois and Sauk and Fox Indians under Black Hawk. Reoccupied vacant lands. Illinois state militia and federal troops were vicious. Black Hawk sent on tour of East
Five Civilized Tribes
Cherokee, Creek, Seminole, Chickasaw, Choctaw had settled agricultural societies with successful economies. Federal gov't tried to negotiate treaties to remove from lands
Cherokee court cases
Cherokees tried to stop white encroachments by appealing to Supreme Court. Marshall ruled in favor of tribe but couldn't enforce it
Oklahoma, place where the five tribes were to be moved to. Was safely distant from existing white settlements and consisted of land that most whites considered undesirable- edge of Great American Desert
minority of Seminoles under Osceola refused to leave and staged uprising in 1835. Dragged on for years, used runaway slaves. Gov't gave up after many deaths, killing of Osceola, and much money in 1842
Maysville Road veto
Jackson vetoed subsidy of proposed Maysville Road (Kentucky) in 1830. Said it was unconstitutional because it wasn't part of interstate commerce and was too extravagant
Biddle, Clay and Webster
Biddle was president of bank from 1823 on, Webster was bank's legal counsel and frequent borrower. Clay supported bank.
Soft v hard money
more currency in circulation unsupported by gold and silver vs gold and silver being only basis for money
Biddle applied to Congress in 1832 for a bill to renew bank's charter. Jackson vetoed. 1832 campaign centered on future of the Bank. Defeat for Clay and Biddle
Taney and removal of deposits
Jackson's friend and secretary of the treasury. Placed gov't deposits in state banks instead of US bank. Biddle wouldn't give in and financial conditions worsened. Eventually killed bank
Taney Court and Jacksonian opportunity
new chief justice Taney modified Marshall's vigorous nationalism. Democracy was expansion of economic opportunity
Whig Party v Democratic Party programs
Democrats saw future of expanding economic and political opportunities for white males, with limited gov't and defense of Union. Whigs favored expanding power of federal gov't and consolidating economic system. Cautious about westward expansion, wanted industrial future.
Treasury surplus (!!!)
Congress didn't want to reduce tariff- support grew for returning federal surplus to states. Passed distribution act requiring gov't to pay surplus funds to the states each year in loans.
presidential order providing that gov't would only accept currency backed by gold or silver for payment for public lands. Produced financial panic
Panic of 1837
Hundreds of banks and businesses failed, unemployment grew, prices fell, public works projects failed. Lasted 5 years
was actually aristocratic but portrayed as a log cabin dweller. Died of pneumonia soon after taking office
former dem who left party because of Jackson's programs/methods. Abolished independent treasury system, wouldn't support Clay's new Bank of US, vetoed internal improvement bills. Cabinet members all resigned. Prepared to join dems
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