126 terms

ARLH 325 Finals

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Study Guide 6 ART AND ARCHITECTURE OF AYYUBID AND MAMLUK EGYPT
after expelling the Crusaders from Jerusalem and the Holy Land, he went on to conquer the Fatimids in Egypt (beginning the Ayyubid Dynasty)
Salah ad-Din (1171-93)
fortified stronghold built by Salah ad-Din on the hill between al-Qahira and al-Fustat, which served as living quarters and administration for subsequent rulers
CITADEL OF CAIRO, 1183/4
elevated 150 feet above the city, the finest example of medieval military architecture in the Muslim world, designed with machicolations, multiple bent entrances and arrow slits
CITADEL OF ALEPPO, begun 1211
slave soldiers employed by the Ayyubid sultans who would usurp power in 1260 and rule Egypt until conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. This period is divided between the Bahri Mamluks (1250-1382) and the Burji Mamluks (1382-1517)
Mamluks
built to relate to the street and the urban context while accommodating the proper direction for prayer, while also designed to make reference to earlier Muslim monuments as a means of justifying Mamluk rule
MAUSOLEUM-MADRASA SULTAN QA'ALUN, 1284/5
begun 1303/4- complex with two domed mausoleum, again designed to relate to the street and the proper qibla direction, while announcing its presence in the urban landscape
MAUSOLEUM-MADRASA SANJAR AND SALAR
Mamluk tomb complexes built on an enormous scale containing a large congregational mosque, 4 Islamic schools and an enormous decorated portal, domed mausoleum and tall minaret.
MAUSOLEUM-MADRASA SULTAN HASAN, 1356-61
elaborately executed objects, many carrying on the Seljuk tradition of inlay with gold and silver and use of figural motifs, although with a growing preference on huge inscriptions as the principal decorative element
Mamluk metalwork
high technical skill in inlaid figures, with imagery capturing the spirit of the courtly life
BAPTISTERE DE ST. LOUIS by Moh. b. al-Zain, c.1300
symbolizes the universe with zodiac/planetary symbols in rondels around edge and the name of the sultan in center, drawn to radiate out like the sun- SOLAR IMAGRY TO GLORIFY RULRE
MIRROR FOR AMIR ALTUNBUGHA (d.1342)
related to contemporary metalwork, favoring same heraldic motifs and epigraphic style, seen in the use of Qoranic inscriptions, titles and blazons of the patron as decoration
Mamluk enamelled glass
"His Light is as a niche wherein is a lamp" (sura 24:35) inscribed on neck in enamel decoration and the blazon of patron Saif al-Din Tuquztimur al-Hamawi (d. 1345) portrayed as an eagle over a cup (meaning he is cup-bearer)
MAMLUK GLASS LAMP
large and luxurious copies commissioned by sultans and high amirs and donated to mosques to be displayed, often with elaborate frontise and finispieces with the star-like geometric designs known as the shamsa (or sun) motif
Mamluk Illuminated Qorans
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Study Guide 8 ILKHANID ART AND ARCHITECTURE
unified nomadic tribes of Mongolia and launched the brutal Mongol invasions which would eventually conquer an empire stretching from China to Asia Minor and as far as Poland
Genghis Khan (died 1227)
(grandson of Genghiz) crossed Oxus 1256, took Baghdad 1258 and was given the title of Il-Khan in 1261, the subordinate to the Khan in China and ruler of Persian lands
Hulagu Khan
greatest architectural monument of the Ilkhanid Dynasty, designed to emphasize verticality and lightness of structure, and decorated with glazed tiles which becomes typical of Ilkhanid and later architecture
TOMB OF ULJETU AT SULTANIYYA, built by Uljetu (brother/successor of Ghaza Khan, the first Ilkhanid ruler to convert to Islam) 1307-1313
documents invasion of alien influences (esp. from Far East) on established painting traditions of eastern Islam
Ilkhanid manuscript painting
from the long tradition of practical treatises, but rendered with greater sense of drama and power, as well as influences from China in details of landscape and painting style (figure 163)
ON THE USEFULNESS OF ANIMALS, 1290s
showing Mongols conquering Iranian cities, in a style which mixes Chinese, Byzantine, and Central Asian aspects with Persian & Arab traditions (fig. 164)
WORLD HISTORY of Rashid al-Din
represent a resurgence of Iranian myths and legends (in particular that of the great hunter and lover Bahram Gur) which become extensively illustrated in manuscript paintings (figure 165-66)
SHAHNAMA
illustration with complex spatial complexities and use of colors which are developing in Mongol painting, as well as a predilection for drama and violent action (figure 167)
THE BIER OF ISKANDAR
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Study Guide 8 TIMURID ART AND ARCHITECTURE
claimed decent for Genghis Khan and initiated a new wave of extremely destructive Mongol invasions in Central Asia, India, Persia, Russia, Asia Minor, even more destructive to Iran than Genghis
Timur (a.k.a. Tamerlane) (1335-1405)
mausoleum complex dedicated to Sufi holy man, built on grand scale typical of Timurid architecture, with an enormous iwan portal and multi-tiered muqarnas dome
SHRINE OF AHMAD YASAVI, 1394-99
Great Mosque at Samarkand built on an enormous scale and covered with elaborate tilework.
MOSQUE OF BIBI KHANUM, 1399-1404
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SHAH-I ZINDA, -complex of mausoleums where female members of Timur's family were buried, built around mausoleum of Qutham b. Abbas facing out to a central axis
Tomb of Timur 1404- "Here lies the Scourge of God"- designed with characteristic Timurid bulbous ribbed dome set on high drum, emphasizing above all size and the decorative effects of colored tiles in balance with the structure
GUR-I MIR
begun by Ulugh Beg (Timur's grandson) 1417-21, who built a royal madrasa and khanaqah facing the Registan, the town square of Samarqand
REGISTAN
represents coming of age of Persian painting, with a reduction of text so that the importance of the illustration predominates and new techniques of representation create a dreamlike fantasy world rendered with incredible technical skill, precision and range of colors
Timurid painting
shows extent of Chinese influences in Persian painting (fig.174)
KALILA WA DIMNA, Herat,1429
Turcoman Style of painting, Shiraz 1470s- picturesque, fanciful landscape detail with a psychedelic exuberance of color applied in complex, multi-planar compositions, often with sense of illimitable distance (see frontispiece and fig 175)
THE GREAT HUNTING PARTY OF UZAN HASAN
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HUMAY AND HUMAYUN IN A GARDEN c. 1430
Herat School of painting- apogee of Persian painting under patronage of last Timurid prince (Sultan Baiqara, r. 1468-1506) with Bihzad representing the greatest artist of this school, representing an increased spatial complexity and abstraction, and predilection for daily activities
BUILDING OF KHAWARNAQ CASTLE
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CALIPH HARUN AL-RASHID VISITS TURKISH BATH, Herat School of painting, Bihzad, C.1494
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STUDY GUIDE 9 SAFAVID PERSIA
Shi'ite dynasty which came to power in Persia in the beginning of the 16th century, taking the name of their venerated ancestor, shaikh Safi al-Din (died 1334)
Safavids
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Shah Tahmasp (son of first shah) helped establish Persia's role vis-à-vis its neighbors
in 1598 decides to move the capital to Isfahan, and becomes the mastermind of the most ambitious and novel scheme of town planing in the Islamic world
Shah Abbas I (r.1587-1629)
the capital of the Safavid Dynasty after 1597 where Shah Abbas I extended the city by creating a new Royal precinct centered around a large open ceremonial open space which was surrounded by newly constructed royal monuments
ISFAHAN
ceremonial open space bordered by double tier of iwans creating a unified facade around the plaza, creating a monumental space for markets, reviewing troops, polo or public executions, forming vistas to all the other royal monuments
-Maydan-i-Shah
the mosque of the Shah built by Shah Abbas I which was entered at the far end of the Maydan-i-shah and built following a typically Persian 4-iwan plan
-Majid-i-Shah/Imam (1612-30)
small mosque covered by a single, magnificently decorated dome with colored tiles in a typically Persian floral arabesque pattern
-Lutfallah Mosque (1602-19)
(Sublime Porte/High Gate)- formed the entrance to the royal palace complex and a major reception pavilion, built with an elevated telar or open columned balcony, providing a covered space on which the Shah could observe activities in the Maydan-i-shah below
-Ali Qapu
pavilion in the Palace garden, built with a flat-roofed portico supported by wooden columns and open on 3 sides to relate to the surrounding gardens
Chihil Sutun (Forty Columns)
tree-lined esplanade and royal quarter-- linking maidan with river (the Zayandarud)
Chahar Bagh
bridges links Isfahan to the suburbs-- has pavilions built on to provide vantage points to watch regatas and other water sports-- also flood control
PUL-I KHWAJU & ALLAHVARDI KHAN
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UNFINISHED SHAHNAME, RUSTAM SLEEPING WHILE RAKHSH FIGHTS THE LION, Tabriz, 1515-22
the most lavishly illustrated Shahnama in all of Persian history, combining traditions of Timurid Herat and Turcoman Tabriz to reach a peak of technical excellence and emotional expressiveness
SHAHNAMA-YI SHAHI (The King's Book of Kings) by Shah Tahmasp 1525-1535
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DEATH OF KING MIRDAS
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COURT OF THE GAYUMARS
Safavids turned cottage industry into a national one as Shah Abbas I founded factories in Isfahan and Kashan which created carpets with complex floral patterns, designed to represent in abstract forms Persian gardens and/or Islamic Paradise
Safavid Carpets
behest of Shah Tahmasp for Arbabil shrine, designed with central medallion and radiating outward with
ARDABIL CARPET (1539-40)
(designs often borrowed from Persian painting of the period)
CATEGORIES OF CARPET DESIGN
design divided into 4 (or more) plots, representing the water channels and flowering plants and trees found in Persian gardens
1. Garden carpet
conceived as a sequence of loosely linked vignettes of animals, hunters, and vegetation, which may represent the royal hunting preserve, a common motif in Islamic art
2. Hunting scenes
designed with centerpiece usually as a huge circular or oval medallion with numerous smaller medallions orbiting around it ex. Ardabil carpet
3. Medallion carpet
Vases with flowers of various sizes form the motifs of the composition
4. Vase carpet
multiple flowering sprays of various size, linked by thin tendrils, spilling across the field of the carpet
5. Floral rugs
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STUDY GUIDE 10 THE OTTOMANS
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Ottoman empire began in Anatolia from the political vacuum after fall of Saljuqs of Rum in 1308 and the decline of Mongol power shortly afterwards, conquering Constantinople in 1453 (the last remnant of the Byzantine Empire) and expanding into eastern Europe and Islamic lands to form a world wide empire which survived into the 20th century
early mosque which shows the Ottoman tendency toward the domed square unit as an architectural principle of design and the dome to cover the prayer hall
HACI OZBEK MOSQUE, 1333, Isnik
rose to rank of Chief Architect and became the greatest Ottoman architect
Sinan (c.1491-1588)
large mosque, mausoleum and madrasa complex centered around a great soaring domed mosque built to imitate the plan of Haghia Sophia, and including a range of social services including a hospital, asylum, medical college, boys school, kitchen, hostel, cistern, hammam (bath), 4 madrasas
KULLLIYE OF SULEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT, Istanbul 1550-57, built by Sinan
architect Sinan's masterpiece, creating an interlocking volume of domes and semi-domes clustering around a central dome supported on arches resting on 8 great piers which open up the interior space
SELIMIYA MOSQUE, Edirne 1569-75
Ottoman domed mosque with interior covered in blue and white tiles from Isnik
COMPLEX OF SULTAN AHMED I (THE BLUE MOSQUE) Istanbul 1609-17
Palace of the Ottoman Sultans which organized around 4 courts which move from outer public spaces involved with administration and the court, to inner private spaces of the sultan and the harem
TOPKAPI SARAY, Istanbul, begun 1463
place for public affairs (army gathering), council chambers, stables/kitchen
Second court
more private, audience hall, library, leads to harem
Third court
private spaces of sultan consisting of a garden with small but elegant wooden structures open to the landscape and views of the city
Fourth court
wooden pavilion open to the garden court with spaces designed for knelling/sitting on floor (possible the legacy of tent architecture)
-KARA MUSTAFA KIOSK 1638
portico with an elegant interior space
-BAGHDAD KIOSK 1752
high quality blue and white ware which favored floral motifs with the distinctive feathery scroll work, combining Chinese motifs with Islamic arabesque design
Iznik pottery and tilework
imperial seal in form of standardized emblem used on official documents, forming a calligraphic artwork which combined into single monogram:
Tughra of Suleyman the Magnificent
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1. Name of Sultan 2. Title Khan (lord)
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3. His father's name 4. Motto "Eternally Victorious"
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STUDY GUIDE 11 MUGHAL INDIA
Turk who conquered central India and founded the Slave King Sultanate at Delhi
Qutb ud Din
gained control of Northern India in the 16th century, ruling over a vast territory and using architecture to display wealth and power, and to facilitate political control
MUGHAL EMPERORS
the first mosque built at Delhi and combined aspects of Islamic design with Hindu construction methods and elements
QUWWAT AL-ISLAM, 1193-98
the free-standing tapered minaret built on an enormous scale to commemorate the Muslim victory over the Hindus
QUTB MINAR
great capital city built by Emperor Akbar between 1568-80's, creating an architecture which blended aspects of Hindu and Muslim styles, centered on a Akbar's palace which consisted of a series of enclosures leading from public to more private zones.
FATHEPUR SIKRI
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In 1579 from the minbar of the Mosque at Fatepur, Akbar declared himself infallible in matters of religion, and 3 years later created his own religion, DIN ILLAHI, a blend of ideas from Islam, Hinduism, Zoroastrianism, Jain faith, and Christianity, with considerable emphasis on sun worship
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Akbar saw himself as the cakravartin, a world ruler in the traditional Indian/Vedic sense—the Lord of the 4 quarters, who the celestrial wheel (sun) guides to domination over all regions
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Elements of Fatepur Sikri-
or Great Mosque built around a great courtyard with a Persian style iwan and domes along the qibla wall and leading to the mihrab
-Jami Masjid
place where Akbar received petitions and pronounced judgments consisting of a large open courtyard with a pillared pavilion at one end
-Public audience hall (Diwan-i-am)
square symmetrical pavilion open except for single central column which supports a large circular platform containing Akbar's throne, connected to galleries by radial walkways, symbolizing the central place of the Emperor
-Private audience hall (Diwan-i-khas)
complex centers around the Anup Talao or peerless pool consisting of a square pool with 4 bridges leading to an island at the center, where Emperor Akbar would have been seated
-Private palace (Mahal-i-khas)
palace structure built for Akbar's wives, forming a symmetrical structure of self-contained apartments
-Zenana or Harem (centered around Jodh Bai's Palace)
5 storied terraced structure (baradari) in the harem formerly surrounded by jalis (carved stone screens) where the women could look out onto the activities of the palace
-Panch Mahal
elegant white marble domed tomb built by Shah Jahan for his wife Mumtaz with surfaces of inlaid stones in floral and calligraphic designs, & placed in a grand symmetrical garden in chahar bagh plan (4 quadrants separated by water channels)
TAJ MAHAL, 1631-48
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Mughal Painting
illustrated histories which chronicle the early Mughal Dynasties
BABURNAMA AND AKBARNAMA
new genre of imperial portraiture which emphasizes allegory and symbolism, and shows influences from European painting traditions
JAHANGIR PREFERRING SUFI SHAYK TO KINGS, 1625
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STUDY GUIDE 12 ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE IN MEDIEVAL AFRICA
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MEDIEVAL KINGDOMS OF WEST AFRICA
began as early as the 4th century and continued until the Almoravid invasion in 1076, with its capital city of Qinbi (a.k.a. Koumbi Sahel)
Wagadu/ Ancient Ghana
formed in the mid-13th century by Sundjata and expanded by Mansa Musa (r.1312-1337) who was instrumental in establishing cities of Timbuktu, Walata, Gao as centers of Islamic learning initiated a new architectural style
Mali
founded by Sunni Ali in 1464 as breakaway kingdom from Mali empire, expanded by Askia Mohammed (r.1493-1529) and conquered by Morocco in 1591
Songhay
possibly built by Mansa Musa, (king of the medieval Mali) while returning from the hajj (1324-27). In its original form, it may have accommodated mausoleum/burials in the courtyard or adjacent to perimeter walls, which become incorporated into the design as conical pillars, the traditional form of ancestor shrines
DJINGUEREBER or GREAT MOSQUE OF TIMBUKTU
mausoleum and mosque complex originally consisting of two towers, one over the mihrab (like in the DjinguereBer Mosque in Timbuktu) and one in the central courtyard over the tomb of Askia Mohammed which is believed to have risen to over 60 feet and consisted of 7 pyramidal terraces
MAUSOLEUM OF ASKIA MOHAMMED. at Gao
although rebuilt in 1909 by French colonial engineers, its design was inspired by indigenous Manding heritage and has become the penultimate architectural symbol for Islam in West Africa, using the conical earthen pillars of the ancestor shrines as buttresses on external wall and forming the key expressive component of the design
GREAT MOSQUE DJENNE
projecting wooden consoles which serve as scaffolding for resurfacing and symbolically evoke human knowledge, rebirth and renewal
torons
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MEDIEVAL CITY STATES OF EAST AFRICA (SWAHILI COAST)
peak period of development 1300-1500 AD
Swahili Kingdoms
early Swahili city which prospered from the Indian Ocean trade, developing a unique architectural tradition which combined Arabian and Asian Islamic aspects of design with indigenous urban and architectural traditions
Kilwa, coastal East Africa (Tanzania), 14th century
large Friday Mosque displaying features typical of Swahili mosques such as a covered courtyard and prayer hall (domed) and staircase minaret
GREAT MOSQUE OF KILWA, 12th-15th century
largest palace in medieval sub-Saharan Africa with a large audience hall, octagonal pool, private harbor, and enormous rear commercial courtyard
PALACE OF HUSUNI KUBWA, 14th century
medieval Swahili city surrounded by an extensive wall containing many stone houses with interlocking plans
GEDI, coastal East Africa (Kenya), 15th century
organized around a sunken courtyard and a series of long narrow contiguous rooms, with the innermost rooms occasionally decorated with elaborate plaster niches
Swahili houses
typical Swahili funerary monument with a tall pillar superstructure, often decorated with inset imported porcelain bowls
Pillar tomb
traditional Swahili city with many surviving 18th century stone houses with elaborately carved wooden doors and intricate interior plasterwork
LAMU, coastal East Africa (Kenya)
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