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47 terms

Instructional Design Terms

Reiser, R. and Dempsey, J. (2007). Trends and issues in instructional design and technology. Upper Saddleriver, NJ; Pearson *** Dick, W., Carey, L. and Carey, J. (2005). The systematic design of instruction. Boston, MA; Pearson. *** Ormrod, J. (2008). Human learning (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ; Pearson.
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Instructional Designer
a person trained to use a systematic approach to designing new instructional systems or impoving already existing systems. Their full-time job is to create replicable instructional products that are effective with a particular learner population. The instructional designer often works with a team of specialists to develop the instruction. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 10)
Instructional design and technology
encompasses the analysis of learning and performance problems, and the design, development, implementation, evaluation, and management of instructional and noninstructional processes and resources intended to improve learning and performance in a variety of settings, particulary education institutions and the workplace. (Reiser & Dempsey, 2007, p. 7)
Subject matter expert (SME)
A person knowledgeable about a particular content area. Also known as Subject Matter Specialist. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 367)
Formative evaluation
the collection of data and information during the development of instruction that can be used to improve the effectiveness of instruction. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 277)
Summative evaluation
the process of collecting data and information in order to make decisions about the acquisition or continued use of some instruction. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 339)
Entry behaviors
the skills, knowledge, and attitudes which are required of learners to be able to begin the instruction. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 6)
Instructional Materials
include all forms of instructions such as instructor's guides, student modules, overhead tranparencies, videotapes, computer-based multimedia formats, and web pages for distance learning. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 7)
Assessment-centered criteria
Test or itme criteria used to judge item writing qualities such as grammar, spelling, punctuation, clarity, parsimony, and the use of recommended item formatting rules. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 363)
Context-centered criteria
Test or item creiteria used to judge the congruence between the situations used in the assessments and the leanring and performance contexts. Authenticity of examples and simulations is the main focus. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 363)
Criterion-referenced test items
Items designed to measure performance on an explicit set of objectives; also known as objective-referenced test items. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 364)
Goal
A broad, general statement of an instructional intent, expressed in terms of what learners will be able to do. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 364)
Goal-centered criteria
Test or item criteria used to judge the congruence between the instructional goal, performance objectives, and test items of any format that is used to monitor learning. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 364)
Learner-centered criteria
Test or item criteria used to judge the congruence between the appropriateness of achievement level, language, contexts, and experiences of target learners and that presented in assessment materials. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 365)
Needs Assessment
The formal process of identifying discrepancies between current outcomes and desired outcomes for an organization. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 365)
Objective
A statement of what the learners will be expected to do when they have completed a specified course of instruction, stated in terms of observable performances. Also know as performance objective; behavioral objective; instructional objective. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 365)
One-to-One Evaluation
The first stage in formative evaluation, referring to direct interaction between the designer and individual tryout student. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 366)
Small-group Evaluation
The second stage of formative evaluation, referring to the use of a small number of tryout students who study an instructional program without intervention for the designer and are tested to assess the effectives of the instruction. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 366)
Field Trial
The third stage in formative evaluation, referring to the evaluation of the program or product in the setting in which it is intened to be used. Also, the second phase of summative evaluation. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 364)
Psychomotor Skill
Execution of a sequence of major or subtle physical actions to achieve a specified result. All skills employ some type of physical action; the physical action in a psychomotor skill is the focus of the new learning, and is not merely the vehicle for expressing an intellectual skill. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 366)
Rapid Prototyping
In software development it is also called rapid application design (RAD) and is the process of using prototype approximations of a software design in order to test whether the application meets the design specifications. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 366)
SCORM
Acronym for Sharable Content Object Reference Model. SCORM is a series of e-learning standards for ensuring interchangeability of course objects within SCORM compliant course management systems. (Dick & Carey, 2005, p. 366)
Assimilation
entails dealing with an object or event in a way that is consistent with an existing scheme
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 311)
Accomodation
(a) modify an existing scheme to account for the new object or event or
(b) form an entirely new scheme to deal with it
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 311)
Core Knowledge
some theorists believe that infants have some biologtically built-in knowledge about the physical world.
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 27)
Neurogenisis
the formation of new neurons; new learning experiences appear to enhance the survival rate and maturation of the yougn neurons, without such experiences, these neurons slowly die away
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 28)
Consolidation
a process by which most newly acquired information and skills seem to "firm up" in the cortex
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 28)
Scaffolding
variety of techniques that can help students accomplish challenging tasks in instructional contexts
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 335)
Apprenticeship
intensive form of guided participation
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 336)
Cognitive Apprenticeship
shows novices how experts typically think about a task or activity
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 336)
Metacognition
people's knowledge of their own learning and cognitive processes, as well as their regulation of those processes to ehnance learning and memory
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 351)
Covert Strategies
internal mental processes that students use
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 389)
Overt Strategies
observable study behaviors; likely to be effective only when the covert strategies that underlie them are productive
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 389)
Extrinsic Motivation
exists when the source of motivation lies outside of the individual and the task being performed
(Ormrod, 2008, p.454)
Instrinsic Motivation
exists when the source of motivation lies within the individual and task
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 454)
Attributions
people's various explanations for success and failure
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 505)
Zone of Proximal Development
Vygotsky's term to identify the range of tasks that children cannot yet perform independently but can perform with the help and guidance of others
(Ormrod, 2008, p.332)
Self-Regulated Learning
a process of setting boals, choosing learning strategies that are likely to help one achieve those goals, evaluating the results of one's efforts, control of one's motivation and emotions; what cognitivists consider portray as effective learning
(Ormrod, 2008, pp. 354-355)
Learning or Study Strategies
the intentional use of one or more cognitive processes to accomplish a particular learning task
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 357)
Positive Transfer
when learning in one situation facilitates learning or performance in another situation
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 393)
Negative Transfer
when something learned in one situation hinders a person's abilitity to learn or perform in a second situation
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 393)
Vertical Transfer
when a learner acquires new knowledge or skills by building on more basic information and procedures
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 393)
Lateral Transfer
when knowledge of the first topic is not essential to learning the second one but is helpful in learning it just the same
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 394)
Near Transfer
involves situations or problems that are similar in both superficial characteristics and underlying relationships
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 394)
Far Transfer
involves tow situations that are similar in one or more underlying relationships but are different in their surface features
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 394)
Specific Transfer
the original learning task and the transfer task overlap in some way; Near and Far transfer are both examples
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 394)
General Transfer
the original task and the transfer task are different in both content and structure; Lateral transfer is an example
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 394)
Internalized Motivation
refers to situations in which, over time, people gradually adopt behaviors that other individuals value, without regard for the external consequences that such behaviors may or may not bring
(Ormrod, 2008, p. 522)