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1789 and 1792; no party affiliation; notable events include the Whiskey Rebellion, Jay's treaty (created favorable trade relations with Britain)
1796; Federalist; notable events include XYZ affair, the passing of the Alien and Sedition Acts, and his appointment of John Marshall (Federalist) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court and numerous federalist "midnight judges"
1800 and 1804; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the Marbury v. Madison Supreme Court decision, the Louisiana purchase (and subsequently the Louis and Clark expedition), the Embargo Act, the ending of the international slave trade in the United States, and the establishment of West Point
1808 and 1812; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the War of 1812, let the charter of the First Bank of the United States expire, but realized it was difficult to finance a war without the bank, so he chartered the 2nd Bank of the United States
1816 and 1820; Democratic-Republican; his time in office is described as "The Era of Good Feelings," notable events include the Missouri Compromise, the establishment of the Monroe Doctrine, the acquisition of Florida from Spain, and several internal improvements such as The Cumberland Road
John Quincy Adams
1824; Democratic-Republican; notable events include the creation of the Tariff of 1828 (known as the "Tariff of Abominations") and his support of Alexander Hamilton's American system (tarriffs, national bank, and internal improvments)
1828 and 1832; Democrat; nicknamed "Old Hickory," notable events include the so-called "bank war" caused by his absolute opposition to the 2nd Bank of the United States, the Nullification Crisis caused by the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832, his policy of Inidan removal, and the first attempt to assasinate a president
Martin Van Buren
1836; Democrat; notable events include the Panic of 1837 and the famous "Trail of Tears"
William Henry Harrison
1840; Whig; his presidency was the shortest in American History (31 days); ran on the slogan "Tippecanoe and Tyler too," he became the first president to die in office
became president when William Henry Harrison died in 1841; elected VP as Whig but acted more like a Democrat; known as "His Accidency," was the first president that the House tried to impeach, and he annexed Texas at the end of his term
James K. Polk
1844; Democrat; president during the Mexican-American War, created the Department of the Interior
1848; Whig; his short run as presidented was dominated by the issue of the expansion of slavery; he died in 1850 and was subsequently replaced by VP Millard Fillmore
Became president when Zachary Taylor died in 1850; Whig; events during his presidency include the Compromise of 1850 and his effort to end Japanese isolation from trade with the US
1852; Democrat; notable events include the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act (which led to "Bleeding Kansas") and the Gadsden Purchase
1856; Democrat; notable events during his presidency include Dred Scott v. Sanford, the Panic of 1857, and the first shots of the Civil War fired at Fort Sumter
1860 and 1864; Republican; led the country during the Civil War, issued the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863, famous for his 2nd Innaugural Address and his Gettysburg Address, tragically assassinated after the end of the war in Ford's Theater by John Wilkes Booth
became president after Lincoln's assassination in 1865; Democrat; president during the Reconstruction period following the Civil War, for which he advocated forgiveness and speed instead of strictness and revenge; the House, controlled by Radical Republicans, attempted to impeach him twice, the second time failing by only one vote
Ulysses S. Grant
1868 and 1872; Republican; although his administration was plagued with scandal (for example the Whiskey Ring), he was largely unresponsible. Other notable events include the terrible Panic of 1873 and his enforcement of African American civil rights
Rutherford B. Hayes
1876; Republican; his presidency is most notable for the end of Reconstruction and enforcement of African American civil rights
1880; Republican; president for only 4 months before being assassinated by Charles Guiteau; promoted civil service reform but did not live to see
Chester A. Arthur
Became president after Garfield's assassination in 1881; Republican; signed the Pendleton Civil Service Reform Act and the Chinese Exclusion Act into law, constructed a new steel navy ("Father of the Steel Navy")
1884 and 1892; Democrat; only president to serve two non-consecutive terms; used his presidential veto power more than any president up to that time, argued for a gold standard for US currency, president during the Panic of 1893 and during the Pullman Strike; the only president to get married in the White House
1888; Republicn; signed the McKinley Tariff and the Sherman Anti-Trust Act (which was not really enforced until Teddy Roosevelt came along); more states admitted during his presidency than any other except Washington's
1896 and 1900; Republican; president during the Spanish-American War (caused by "yellow journalism" in the US, which seemed to be confirmed by the sinking of the USS Maine in Havana Harbor), he annexed Hawaii and put US currency on the Gold Standard; he was assassinated in 1901 by Leon Frank Czolgosz
became president after McKinley's assassination, reelected in 1904; Republican; this former Rough Rider was often called a "trust buster," his namesake corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, first president to be seen publicly riding in an automobile
1908; Republican; continued and expanded upon Theodore Roosevelts policy of trustbusting (he even filed suit against the largest, US Steel), foreign policy characterized by "Dollar Diplomacy," proposed the 16th amendment creating a federal income tax (ratified in 1913 as he was leaving office)
1912 and 1916; Democrat; secured passage of the Federal Reserve act, created the Federal Trade commission and signed the Clayton Anti-Trust Act into law, president during WWI (first had preposed peace/neutrality and used the slogan "He kept us out of the war" to be reelected, but he entered the US in the war because of Germany's unrestricted submarine warfare and the Zimmerman note), his war aims were known as the Fourteen Points
Warren G. Harding
1920; Republican; campaign slogan was "A Return to Normalcy," appointed group known as the "Ohio gang" (his longtime allies/contibutors) to important positions in DC, where they caused much corruption (Teapot Dome Scandal), established the Veteran's Bureau and the Bureau of the Budget (now called the Office of Management and Budget); he died in office in 1923
became president after the death of Harding, reelected in 1924; Republican; period of rapid economic growth known as "The Roaring Twenties," little regulation of business, lower taxes (typical conservative Republican), Kellogg-Briand Pact (treaty that tried to outlaw war)
1928; Republican; approach to economy known as voluntarism (avoid destroying individuality/self-reliance by government coercion of business); of course, in 1929 the stock market crashed; tried to fix it through creating the Emergency Relief and Construction Act and the Reconstruction Finance Corporation (didn't really work)
1932, 1936, 1940, and 1944; Democrat; New Deal to end great depression (created an "alphabetocracy" of agencies): two parts: First 100 Days and 2nd New Deal; social security created under the New Deal, opposition from Supreme Court, so he tried "court packing" (people didn't like that), tried to maintain neutrality in WWII, but had ties to allies (Lend Lease Act, strong economic ties), 1941: Pearl harbor ("a date which will live in infamy"), US enters WWII, died in 1945 while in office
became president after death of FDR and reelected in 1948; Democrat; first and only president to use nuclear weapons; postwar: the US joined the United Nations, Truman Doctrine (containment of communism), Marshall Plan (rebuild Europe), "Fair Deal"-his economic policy, recognized Israel, Berlin airlift, 2nd term: supported/joined NATO, "McCarthyism", Korean War (fired Gen Dougals MacArthur), executive orders desegregating armed forces and prohibiting discrimination in civil service system
Dwight D. Eisenhower
1952, 1956; Republican; Domino Theory established, Cold War deepened, sent US military advisors to Vietnam; president when Supreme Court decided Brown v. Board of Education, and created the Interstate Highway System (for purposes of national defense)
John F. Kennedy
1960; Democrat; Cold War: Bay of Pigs, Cuban Missile Crisis; established the Peace Corps, domestic program called the "New Frontier," promoted civil rights, major supporter of the space program; assassintated by Lee Harvey Oswald in 1963
Lyndon B. Johnson
Became president after Kennedy's assassination and reelected in 1964; Democrat; signed the Civil Rights Act of 1964 into law, promoted his "Great Society" plan, part of which included the "war on poverty", Medicare and Medicaid established; Vietnam: Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, Tet Offensive
1968 and 1972; Republican; Vietnam: advocated "Vietnamization" (replace US troops with Vietnamese), but also bombed Cambodia/Laos, created a "credibility gap," Paris Peace Accords ended direct US involvement; economy-took US off gold standard (currency valued by strength of economy); created the Environmental Protection Agency, was president during first moon landing; SALT I and new policy of detente between US and Soviet Union; Watergate scandal: became first and only president to resign
became president when Nixon resigned; Republican; pardoned Nixon; economy: "Whip Inflation Now" (WIN); president when Roe v. Wade was decided; continued detente policy with Soviets; Vietnam: Fall of Saigon, evacuation of US troops
1976; Democrat; signed SALT II, relinquished US control of the Panama Canal, Camp David Accords-negotiated peace between Israel and Egypt; chemical contamination emergency in Love Canal; final part of term marred by Iran Hostage Crisis
1980 and 1984; Republican; "Reagan Revolution": reduce reliance on government; Reagonomics: supply-side, laissez-faire, send troops to Grenada, escalated the Cold War: "rollback" of communism, Strategic Defense Initiative (Star Wars); War on Drugs, Iran-Contra affair, second term-ended cold war ("tear down this wall" (Berlin Wall))
George H.W. Bush
1988; Republican; increased welfare and unemployment benefits during a recession, yielded to Democrat Congress on economic issues, signed the American with Disabilities Act, sent troops to Panama, Soviet Union collapsed in 1991: end of Cold War, sent troops to fight Sadaam Hussein in the Persian Gulf War; North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
1992 and 1996; Democrat; Don't Ask Don't Tell policy implemented by Congress, Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1993, Travelgate controversy; Operation Desert Fox (4 day bombing campaign in Iraq); Scandals: Whitewater controversy, Lewinsky scandal (impeached and acquited), Travelgate controversy, Troopergate; first balanced budget since 1969
George W. Bush
2000 and 2004; Republican; 9/11 terrorist attack invade Afghanistan and Iraq; economy: huge tax cuts, 2007-great recession; No Child Left Behind, Medicare prescription drug benefits, Hurricane Katrina disaster
2008; Democrat; first African American president of the US, health care bill; Gulf of Mexico oil spill disaster; economy: huge stimulus package to combat the great recession, is removing troops from Iraq, strengthened numbers in Afghanistan; repeal of Don't Ask Don't Tell; New Start treaty with Russia
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