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Biology 106 Midterm
Terms in this set (84)
Properties of living things
Order, Regulate, Grow and Develop, Obtain and use energy, Respond to the environment, Reproduce, Evolve
process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment
the combination of chemical reactions through which an organism builds up or breaks down materials
Community vs Population
community and population both occupy an environment at the same time, but community is multiple species, population is one species.
Biological Classification System
Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species
Prokaryotic vs. Eukaryotic
Eukaryotic cells have nucleus and membrane bound organelles. Prokaryotic cells (BACTERIA) are unorganized and don't have a nucleus
3 domains of life
- prokaryotic organisms
- microscopic, unicellular
- found almost everywhere on Earth
- prokaryotic organisms
- microscopic, unicellular
- inhabit in extreme environments, where other organisms cannot live.
- Salt water places
- Acidic places
- membrane-enclosed organelles
Science vs supernatural
Science is testifiable and the supernatural is not.
5. Test (experiment, more observation)
6. Collect data
7. Conclusion (analyze data)
specific to general
general to specific
well-tested explanation that unifies a broad range of observations
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
a test of the effect of a single variable by changing it while keeping all other variables the same
the process of change that occurs during an organism's life to produce a more complex organism
Proper format for scientific names of species
- Genus name
- Italicized or underlined
- Genus name is capitalized
Example: Homo sapiens (italicized) = humans
Similarity in characteristics resulting from a shared ancestry.
similarity due to convergent evolution
structure that is inherited from ancestors but has lost much or all of its original function
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.
How natural selection works
Environmental pressure, competition, selection of fittest phenotype, reproductive success, frequency of that genotype increases
Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
when two or more species sharing a common ancestor become more different over time
diagram showing evolutionary relationships of organisms with a common ancestor; resembles a tree
The evolutionary history of a species or group of related species
A diagram that is based on patterns of shared, derived traits and that shows the evolutionary relationships between groups of organisms
a group including all the descendants of a common ancestor - desirable classification
a group with an ancestor and only some of its descendants - undesirable classification
a group that does not uniquely share a common ancestor - undesirable classification (excludes common ancestor)
advanced (derived) character state
shared advanced (derived) characteristic
unshared, advance (derived) charaterstic
primitive (ancestral) character state
shared primitive (ancestral) characteristic
A similar (analogous) structure or molecular sequence that has evolved independently in two species.
Character state reversal
The character reverts to its plesiomorphic state in a part of the phylogeny.
Organism that has the primitive (ancestral) traits, organism does not have any of the observable traits.
Group of organisms that you focus on
Principle of Parsimony (Occam's Razor)
best explanation is simplest and requires the fewest assumptions, relating to phylogenetic trees
The molecular clock
The idea that certain genes accumulate mutations at a constant rate.
an unresolved pattern of divergence
a group of organisms in a classification system
Levels of Biological Organization
6. Organ Systems
The entire portion of Earth inhabited by life; the sum of all the planet's ecosystems.
All organisms in a given area, living (abiotic) or nonliving (biotic).
All the different populations that live together in an area
A group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
A living thing, consisting of one or more cells
A group of organs that work together in performing vital body functions.
Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function or related functions
Groups of cells with a common structure and function.
smallest unit of life
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell, membrane-enclosed.
Groups of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds
smallest unit of matter, properties of an element.
The Origin of Species
1859: Charles Darwin's book
Explained three observations about life:
3. The match between organisms and their environment.
Darwin did not know
1. How heritability originated
2. Age of the Earth
3. What the hereditary material was
4. The origin of life
Darwin's 2 inferences
Inference #1: Individuals whose inherited traits give them a higher probability of surviving and reproducing in a given environment tend to leave more offspring than other individuals
Inference #2: This unequal ability of individuals to survive and reproduce will lead to the accumulation of favorable traits in the population over generations
Unity and Diversity of Life
Diverse forms of life on this planet arose by evolutionary processes.
- shows that all organisms have a common ancestor but they are completely different organisms.
Evidence for Evolution
1. Direct observations
The science of classifying organisms, the use of binomial (two name) nomenclature for each species.
Individuals vs. Populations
individuals do not evolve; populations evolve over time
Selective breeding of plants and animals to promote the occurrence of desirable traits in offspring
variable that is manipulated, the cause (x-axis).
the effect (y-axis).
layers of rock
Organisms produce more offspring than the environment can handle.
- these offspring fail to survive and reproduce.
result from the arrangement and interaction of parts within a system.
- "The whole is greater than the sum of it's parts."
genetically encoded behaviors, unlearned behaviors
- photosynthetic multicellular organisms
- Flowering plants
Decomposers- break down and absorb biological molecules from dead organisms.
- Unicellular or multicellular
-lack cell walls
Paleontology- the study of fossils
Catastrophism- species wiped out and replaced
- He believed that species do not change overtime.
James Hutton and Charles Lyell
Fathers of Geology
- changes in Earth's surface can result from slow, continuous actions still operating today.
- mechanisms of change are constant overtime
1859; The Origin of Species
- Descent with Modification
- Evolution is a pattern and a process.
1700s:Organisms features show that God designed each species for a particular purpose.
- Founder of taxonomy, the branch of biology that deals with classifying organisms.
Ancient Grece (300 BC)
- viewed species as unchanging and arranged them on a Scala naturae.
- he did not think organisms changed overtime
- first person to categorize organisms
Father of Economics
- economics is about supply and demand
- came up with the term biotic potential
- famines and wars occur
- population will die off because the supply does not meet the demand.
THOUGHT that species evolve through:
- use and disuse of body parts
- inheritance of acquired characteristics
Came up with a theory about evolution, but was incorrect.
Alfred Russel Wallace
Developed a similar theory like Darwin's, he published his first.
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