means "prophet" rather than "messenger or apostle"
means "messenger" or "apostle"; title applied to Muhammad
a large black stone positioned in Mecca
the faction of Muslims that believe that Muhammad appointed his father-in-law Abu Bakr as his successor
the faction of Muslims that believes that Muhammad appointed his son-in-law Ali as his successor
"reading" or "recitation," the Muslim holy text
means "submission" or "surrender"
literally, someone who has submitted or surrendered himself to Allah
Muslim profession of faith
chapter of the Qur'an
the orientation/direction the Muslim faces during shalah
the mandatory pilgrimage to Mecca
a Muslim who practices a mystical or esoteric form of Islam
spiritual path of perfection and union with God practiced by Sufi Muslims
"city of the prophet," the site that Muhammad flees to after he is expelled from Mecca
refers to the encounter between Greek philosophies and Israelite faith/Scriptures
a group of Jews that believed in a literal following of the law, and object to Jesus on several grounds
the priestly Jewish class that is in charge of the temple; die out after the destruction of the Temple
the group of Jews that advocated a violent overthrow of Rome and expected a warrior Messiah
a Jewish monastic desert community responsible for the Dead Sea Scrolls
Canon of Scripture
the collection of Holy writings compiled by the rabbis
the Greek translation of the NT
the complete Hebrew Bible
the first rabbinic commentary
rabbinic commentary on the Mishnah/debates about how the law should be applied
literally, "instruction," or "learning," the combination of the Mishnah and Gemara, which contained rabbinic debates about the Passover
responsible for compiling the 13 Jewish Principles/Articles of Faith
Shemone Esre Berakhot
the 18 blessings used in Jewish religion
"holy, sanctification"; the prayer that concludes synagogue service
a sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving in Jewish liturgy
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