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Honors Biology - Unit 2 Test
Terms in this set (65)
Idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells.
First to observe "small chambers" in cork and call them cells by using a compound microscope in 1665.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek
Created the first powerful single-lens microscope. One of the first to look at and describe cells. (1674)
Concluded that all plants are made of cells.
Concluded that all animals are made of cells.
Proposed that new cells are formed only from cells that already exist.
Basic unit of life.
1. Cells tend to be microscopic.
2. All cells are enclosed by a membrane.
3. All cells are filled with cytoplasm.
Cell lacking a nucleus and most other organelles (DNA loosely stored in cytoplasm).
Cell that has a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles (DNA stored securely in nucleus).
A tiny cell structure that carries out a specific function within the cell.
A three dimensional polymer made of monomers of amino acids.
A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments in muscle and other contractile elements in cells.
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement of material throughout the cell.
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended, hosts many chemical reactions. (mostly made of water)
Control center of the cell, stores genetic material.
Two major demands:
1. Protect DNA
2. DNA must be available for use at proper time
layer of two membranes that surrounds the nucleus of a cell.
Small holes that pierce the nuclear envelop.
Found inside the nucleus and produces ribosomes.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (RER)
Produces and transports proteins made at attached ribosomes; synthesizes phospholipids.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (SER)
The region of the endoplasmic reticulum that has few or no ribosomes on its cytoplasmic surface and synthesizes carbohydrates, lipids, and steroid hormones; detoxifies chemicals like pesticides, preservatives, medications, and environmental pollutants, and stores calcium ions. (produces lipids)
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized (produced). Some bound to rough endoplasmic reticulum and others suspended in cytoplasm.
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell. Closely layered stacks of membrane-enclosed spaces. (the cell's "post office")
A membrane bound sac that contains materials involved in transport of the cell, or materials through the cell (sometimes used in secretion). They store reactants for chemical reactions. Short lived and quickly recycled.
A hollow rod composed of tubulin proteins that makes up part of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotic cells and is found in cilia and flagella. -Intracellular transport and positioning of membrane vesicles and organelles.
-The separation of chromosomes at mitosis.
-The beating of cilia and flagella. Movement of microtubules based on motor proteins that use energy from ATP hydrolysis.
A protein that interacts with cytoskeletal elements and other cell components, producing movement of the whole cell or parts of the cell.
kinesics and dyneins
Motor proteins used by microtubules among others to move the cell and organelles within it throughout.
part of eukaryotic cell division during which the cell nucleus divides.
cilia and flagella
Hairlike structures that extend from the surface of the cell, where they assist in movement.
Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production. Bean-shaped with two membranes.
-Thought to have been once independently living
-Has independent genome
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
The complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes.
Cell organelle that stores materials such as water, salts, proteins, inorganic ions, enzymes, and carbohydrates. (only in plant cells) Strengthens and supports to cell, plants rely on turgor pressure to maintain rigidity.
The pressure that water molecules exert against the cell wall.
Cell organelle filled with enzymes needed to break down certain materials in the cell. (suicide sac) Prevents bacteria and viruses from entering cell. Breaks down damaged and worn-out cell parts. ONLY found in ANIMAL CELLS.
centrosome and centrioles
Essential for movement of chromosomes during cell division; organization of microtubules in cytoskeleton. Produces microtubules in small region of cytoplasm. Contains two small structures called centrioles in animal cells. Centriole: cylinder-shaped organelles made of short microtubules. Helps with cell division. Forms cilia and flagella.
Process by which a cell divides into two new daughter cells.
A strong, rigid layer of nonliving material that surrounds the cells of plants and some other organisms. (outside of membrane) Found in plants, algae, fungi, and most bacteria. Provides protection, support, and shape to cell.
Middle lamella (a type of pectin) joins the cell walls of two neighboring plant cells together.
A substance (made of sugars) that is common in the cell walls of many organisms.
A chemical that provides both toughness and flexibility.
A protein-carbohydrate compound that makes the cell walls of bacteria rigid.
a soluble gelatinous polysaccharide that is present in ripe fruits and is extracted for use as a setting agent in jams and jellies. (used in production of jelly-like candy)
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells.
An organelle found in plant and algae cells where photosynthesis occurs. Has many compartments with outer and inner membranes. Contains thylakoids (disc-shaped sacs) with light-absorbing chlorophyll (gives plants green color) for photosynthesis. Contains own set of ribosomes and DNA, suggesting that it was once a free-living prokaryote.
A flattened membrane sac inside the chloroplast, used to convert light energy into chemical energy.
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria.
Conversion of light energy from the sun into chemical energy.
The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. It forms the boundary between the cell and the outside environment in animal cells (plant cells have additional cell wall). Controls passage of material like molecules in and out of cell (selectively permeable). Helps to maintain homeostasis in the cell. Made of double layer of phospholipids. Strengthened by cholesterol molecules. Proteins form channels for larger molecules to pass through. Carbohydrates attached to proteins act like "identification tags." Fluid mosaic model describes the arrangement of molecules. Flexible "fluid like" lipid embedded with mosaic of other molecules. The passing molecule's size, polarity, and concentration of inside vs outside the cell determines how much, if any, energy is used to transport materials out and in to cell. Receptors help transmit messages. Receptors bind to molecules called ligands, and when bonded, they change shape, affecting how receptor interacts with other molecules.
A lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes.
A property of cell membranes that allows some substances to pass through, while others cannot. Most smaller molecules can move directly through the membrane while larger ones move through select protein channels.
fluid mosaic model
Model that describes the arrangement and movement of the molecules that make up a cell membrane.
A molecule that binds specifically to another molecule, usually a larger one, especially when traveling through the cell membrane.
Receptors located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane. It can interact with DNA and start the production of certain proteins.
A protein that binds to molecules in the extracellular environment.
Movement of molecules from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration. (without the use of energy)
Diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane.
The movement of substances across a cell membrane without the use of energy by the cell.
Describes a solution whose solute concentration is equal to the solute concentration inside a cell. (water concentration equal inside and outside of cell, water moves in and out at an equal rate)
When comparing two solutions, the solution with the greater concentration of solutes. (water concentration higher in cell than outside, water moves out of cell)
When comparing two solutions, the solution with the lesser concentration of solutes. (water concentration lower in cell than outside, water moves in to cell)
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels (still passive transport).
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference.
Process by which a cell takes material into the cell by infolding of the cell membrane.
Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material.
Cell eating (key role in immune system (white blood cells), cell membrane make "pocket" around material)
This set is often in folders with...
Plant Cell Organelles
Cell Membrane and cell transport
cell structure and function study guide
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