Midterm Review - World Religions and Philosophy
Terms in this set (70)
A term coined by German philosopher Karl Jaspers to describe the period from 800 to 200 BCE. Shifted from an emphasis on polytheism, ritualism, and culture bounds to monism, ethics, and universality
Religious belief system of Indo-European migrants to north India; involved animal sacrifice and elaborate ceremonies to ensure that all transitions in the natural world-day to night, or one season to the next proceeded smoothly.
A major book in Hinduism that is often in the form of dialogues that explored the Vedas and the religious issues that they raised.
Code of Manu
The codification of early Indian law that lays down family, caste, and commercial law
The most important work of Indian sacred literature, a dialogue between the great warrior Arjuna and the god Krishna on duty and the fate of the spirit.
Indigenous group that built the city of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro
Two cities in the Indus River Valley
Aryan Invasion of India
Aryans invaded and destroyed Indus River civilization, settled, moved to Ganges River.
The four major social divisions in India's caste system: the Brahmin priest class, the Kshatriya warrior/administrator class, the Vaishya merchant/farmer class, and the Shudra laborer class.
the highest of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of priests
Hindu caste of warriors and aristocrats.
the third of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of producers, such as farmers, merchants, and artisans
the lowest of the four classes of the caste system, traditionally made up of servants and laborers
the eternal essence of reality and the source of the universe, beyond the reach of human perception and thought
in Hindu belief, a person's essential self
a compound term to indicate the essential identity of individual consciousness with the eternal Brahman, the universal World Soul
Tat Tvam Asi
That you are
neither this nor that
The belief that actions in this life, whether good or bad, will decide your place in the next life.
Cycle of Samsara
birth, death, rebirth
Pleasure, especially of sensual love; one of the four goals of life
Material success and social prestige, one of the four goals of life
the religious and moral duties of an individual
path of knowledge
path of devotion to Krishna
Avatar of Vishnu
Krishna's Arguments for Arjuna's Battle
1. You cannot really kill people
2. As a Kshatriya, you have an obligation to be a warrior
3. If you do it with love for Krishna, you'll be liberated
The Bull of Shiva
Consort of Shiva; also known as Durga
Brahma (creator), Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer)
Storm and Warrior deity
Aryan creator god, god of the sky
God of fire
God of the moon; Hallucinogenic drink
God of the sun; Alexander the Great
a religion founded in India in the sixth century BC, whose members believe that everything in the universe has a soul and therefore shouldn't be harmed. Mahavira founded this religion.
one who has brought forth the highest in his or her being (perfect individual)
How many Jinas are there?
24th Jinas; An extreme aesthetic who founded the religion Jainism and thought of several Hindu concepts, such as karma, in a very concrete way
Took Mahavira __ years to conquer his body
Mahavira starved himself to death at ___
72 years old
Five Vows of Jainism
1. Ahimsa - non-violence towards all living things
2. No lying - tell truth
3. Don't take things that weren't given to you
4. Renounce sexual pleasure
5. Renounce all attachments
How many Jains are left?
Sky clad Jains
Naked traveling jains
White clad jains
Jain laity can have
Jain laity cannot have
potatoes, carrots, onions
Jains are ___ in India
Jain temples are ____
Jains can be ___, ____, ____, - anything not liable to kill people
lawyers, bankers, business people
A religion based on the teachings of the Buddha.
Parable of the Arrow
Man shot asked questions that don't help solve the problem of his mortal wounding. Thesis: focus on solving the most important issues: old age, sickness, death- metaphysical questions may not do this.
Buddha was not allowed to see ___
Old age, death, etc
Buddha became a __
The girl who offers the Buddha food after he passed out
Middle Way (Buddhism)
Nothing to excess, not too little or too much
The tree under which Sidartha Gautama achieved enlightenment.
This is the code of monastic discipline for the monks. It consists of the Five Precepts (no stealing, sexual activity, killing, lying, or alcohol) which apply to all Buddhists, and five further restrictions designed specifically for members of the sangha. These are:
(6) Not to take food from noon to the next morning.
(7) Not to adorn the body with anything other than the monk's robe. (8) Not to participate in or watch public entertainments.
(9) Not to use high or comfortable beds.
(10) Not to use money.
Server of Buddha's last meal
Four Noble Truths
1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hated and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome nonvirtue is to follow the Eightfold Path
Doctrine of Impermanence
The state of enlightenment for Buddhists.
The first of the Four Noble Truths, the basic Buddhist insight that suffering is part of the human condition.
The second of the Four Noble Truths, selfish desire, which causes dukkha
a stopping; a discontinuance
The eight-fold path
eight guides to thought and conduct in the Buddhism religion
total enlightenment, arriving at the truths
Buddha was reached by Mara (evil lord of desires) in an attempt to stop Buddha from reaching enlightenment under the Bodhi tree by bribing him with desires in fear that Buddha will eliminate desire. Buddha resisted and became a Bodhisattva