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316 terms

Microbiology

Multiple choice questions from the compend for Microbiology
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active
Vaccines bring about a type of immunity referred to as
naturally acquired passive
The type of immunity which is the result of placental transfer of antibodies is called
antiserum
The serum derived from an animal that has been immunized to an infectious disease and is used to confer immunity to others, including humans, is called
antigen
A foreign protein, which when introduced into the body, excites the body cells to produce antibodies against itself, is called a(an)
artificially acquired passive
The type of acquired immunity that results from the inoculation of immune serum is called
susceptibility
Lack of resistance to a specific disease is called
antibodies
Substances produced by body cells to combat foreign proteins introduced into the living body are called
agglutinins
Antibodies that inactivate invading bacterial cells by causing the cells to form clumps are called
acquired
The type of immunity that is inherited is called
innate
The type of immunity that is inherited is called
naturally acquired passive
The type of immunity that results from the inoculation of a toxoid is
vaccine
The causative agent of a disease modified in such a manner that it will no longer cause the disease but will still promote the production of antibodies is a/an
immunity
A highly developed state of resistance to a specific disease is called
droplet spray
The organisms responsible for the infection epidemic meningitis exit from the host by means of
ingestion
Infections caused by members of the genus Salmonella are primarily transmitted by
mouth
The portal of entry of Salmonella typhi is
Neisseria
Opthalmia neonatorum is an infection caused by
Clostridium
Endospore formation is characteristic of the members of the genus
tetanus
Lockjaw is the common name for the disease
Clostridium perfringens
Gas gangrene and tissue gas is caused by
Staphylococcus
Local skin abscesses are infections usually caused by members of the genus
Asiatic cholera
Vibrio cholerae are bacteria responsible for the infection called
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Which of the following organisms has a high lipid content of the cell wall?
whooping cough
Pertussis is a disease that is commonly called
tularemia
Rabbit fever is the common name for the disease
childbed fever
Puerperal sepsis is commonly referred to as
Clostridium perfringens
Which of the following organisms is capable of forming capsules when living as parasites?
Streptococcus pyogenes
The causative agent of the infection called septic sore throat is
Tularemia
Which of the following diseases may be caused by the organisms responsible for infection entering the body through the unbroken skin?
Bacillus anthracis
Endospore formation is a characteristic of
rheumatic fever
Streptococcus pyogenes is responsible for the infectious disease
Treponema pallidum
Which of the following organisms is the causative agent for a venereal disease?
infectious jaundice
Weil's disease is another name for
ophthalmia neonatorum
Silver nitrate prophylaxis was once used for the control of
nose and mouth
The portal of entry of Streptococcus pneumoniae is the
agglutinins
Which of the following organisms is capable of forming capsules when living as parasites?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Which of the following organisms is capable fo forming capsules when living as parasites?
Respiratory discharges
Which of the following does NOT play a part in the transmission of salmonellosis?
Syphilis
Which of the following diseases are caused by a spiral-shaped organism?
Treponema pallidum
Syphilis is an infection caused by
coccus
Septic sore throat is caused by a
female reproductive tract
The disease known as puerperal sepsis occurs in the
facultative anaerobes
Those bacteria that prefer to live in the presence of free oxygen but can live in its absence are called
optimum temperature
The temperature at which a species of bacteria grows best is
autotrophic
An organism that can utilize inorganic matter as food is called
facultative parasite
A bacterium that prefers dead inorganic material, but can also obtain nourishment from living organic material is a/an
sporulating
Those spore forming bacteria that currently contain spores are called
mesophilic bacteria
Those bacteria that grow best at a relatively moderate temperature are called
minimum temperature
The lowest temperature at which growth for a species will take place is the
maximum temperature
The highest temperature at which growth for a species will take place is the
facultative anaerobe
A bacteria that grows and reproduces best in the presence of oxygen, but can also grow and reproduce in its absence , is a
alkalinity
pH is a method for measurement of
They are obligate saprophytes
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of viruses?
binary fission
Bacteria usually reproduce by
Mycobacterium
Which organism is acid fast positive?
thermophilic
Those bacteria that grow best at a relatively high temperature are
psychrophilic
Those bacteria that grow best at a relatively low temperature are
Yeasts
Which organisms are known as the "true fungi"?
virology
The study of the smallest microscopic life forms is
autolysis
Self digestion of tissue by enzymes of their own formation is called
Capsule
Which structure functions to protect the organism and to enhance its virulence?
Nucleic acid
Which structure contains the material of inheritance?
bacilli
Those bacteria that may be capable of forming spores are called
cocci
Those bacteria that are spherical in shape are called
bacilli
Rod-shaped bacteria are called
mycology
The study of true fungi is
microorganism
An animal or plant of microscopic size is called a
yeasts
Those eucaryotic, true fungi that reproduce by budding are called
bacteria
Cocci, bacilli, and spirilla are shapes of
multicellular
Molds are
unicellular
Living organisms that are composed of a single cell are said to be
protozoa
Microscopic one-celled animals are called
1/25000 of an inch
A micrometer is equal to approximately
Lymphogranuloma venereum
Which of the following is classified as a venereal disease?
procaryotic
The bacteria which contain nuclear bodies are
droplet spray
The most common mode of transmission for tuberculosis is
nuclear membrane
The cytoplasm of the typical eucaryotic cell is separated from the nucleus by the
nuclear body
The material of inheritance is contained within the
cell
The basic unit from which all living organisms are made is the
antibiosis
An association of two organisms that is detrimental to one is
an endoenzyme
An enzyme that is produced in a bacterial cell but retained inside the cell is
colony
A visible mass of bacterial growth resulting from the reproduction of a single cell is a
staphylococci
Spherical shaped bacteria that form grape-like clusters are called
bacilli
Spore formation is characteristic of only a few species of
the conditions for reproduction are not favorable
Spores are most likely to form when
increasing virulence
The presence of a capsule may affect a bacterium by
it is formed within the cell
The bacterial spore is called an endospore because
Psittacosis
Which of the following is caused by Chlamydia?
a micrometer
The size of bacteria is measured in a special unit called
cell
The smallest unit in which a living organism can survive independently is a
sporulating
Spore forming bacteria under unfavorable conditions are called
a protective device
Spore formation is characterized as
unsuitable living conditions
Spore formation occurs in response to
rabies
The respiratory tract is the primary portal of entry for all of the following virus diseases except
Candida
Monilia is used synonymously with
mumps
A viral disease primarily of man is
Sexual contact
What is the most common mode of transmission for gonorrhea?
Typhus fever
Which is NOT a viral disease?
Syphilis
Which is NOT a viral disease?
chlamydia
Lymphogranuloma venereum is caused by a
bubonic plague
Least likely to be a viral disease is
viruses
Antibiotics have thus far been ineffective against most varieties or types of
rickettsia
The causative agent of typhus fever is a
Serum hepatitis
Which of the following viruses is most likely transmitted from person to person by unsanitary injection procedures?
fungi
Mycology is the study of
a fungal infection
Ringworm arises from
Viruses
Which of the following require living cells for growth?
protozoa
Malaria is caused by
Rickettsia rickettsii
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by
exposure to blood
Serum hepatitis has been attributed to
Herpes simplex virus
A virus which causes fever blisters or cold sores is
bacterial toxins
Hemolysins and leucocidins are classified as
Q fever
Which of the following is caused by rickettsia?
cold temperatures
Which of the following is the least effective in the destruction of microbes?
unicellular
Protozoa may be classified as
lice
Epidemic typhus fevers are transmitted by
transmitted by air
Parrot fever is
protozoa
Malaria and amoebiasis are caused by
strict parasite
A virus is a
droplet spray
The common cold is transmitted by
hydrophobia
Rabies is also called
parasites
Rickettsia grow only as
rickettsia
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by
rickettsia
Q fever is caused by
fungi
Histoplasmosis and coccidioidomycosis are caused by
man, animals, insects
Viruses have been found to be capable of infecting
Food poisoning
Which of the following is caused by a member of the genus Staphylococcus?
fungus
Ringworm is caused by a
Candida
Which organism causes the disease known as thrush?
Mumps
Which disease is NOT dermatrophic?
Pneumotrophic
Which virus attacks the respiratory tract?
variola
Vaccination with cowpox virus will produce an immunity to
Sporozoa
Which protozoan parasite does NOT have a method for locomotion?
sterilization
The destruction of all microorganisms and their products is termed
an antiseptic
The inhibition of bacterial growth and reproduction without necessarily destroying the organisms is the result of
disinfection
The destruction of all pathogens and their products is termed
fungicide
An agent which destroys yeasts and molds is termed a/an
a fumigant
An agent which liberates the gases or fumes for the purpose of destruction of insects and microorganisms is called
steam under pressure
Which of the following is most efficient in destruction of microorganisms?
cold
Which one of these is primarily bacteriostatic in its action?
the common cold
The most often diagnosed viral infection is
heat
The most widely applicable and effective sterilizing agent is
respiratory tract
The usual portal of entry for pneumotropic viral diseases is the
boiling
Free-flowing steam is about equal to
121 degrees C
The autoclave usually generates a temperature of about
are bactericidal
The ultraviolet rays contained in direct sunlight
Rubella
German measles are more correctly known as
viscerotropic
What type of virus would have an affinity for the liver?
time of day
Which of the following is NOT a factor in the action of a chemical disinfectant?
Phenol
Which of the following is used as a standard to measure the efficiency of chemical disinfectants
Zephiran chloride
Which of the following is a quaternary ammonium compound?
The brain
Which part of the body is affected by encephalitis?
shingles
The same virus that causes chickenpox will also cause a second infection in some individuals. This second infection is known as
Dermatropic
What type of viral diseases would cause lesions of the skin?
Gluteraldehyde
Which of the following is NOT a phenolic compound?
contamination
A term that may be used to describe the presence of true pathogens on inanimate objects is
opportunists
Microorganisms that produce disease only under favorable conditions are
Infestation
What term refers to the invasion of the body by macroscopic parasites?
Virulence
What term is defined as the degree of the ability of a microorganism to cause disease?
Infection
What term is defined as the invasion of the body by living microorganisms with subsequent multiplication and disease production?
decreasing virulence
Attenuation affects a pathogen by
Elective localization
What term refers to the preference of a pathogen for a particular part of the body?
endogenous
An infection which is caused by organisms already present in the body is best described as
acute
An infection which has a relatively short and severe course is termed
local
An infection which remains confined to a particular part of the body is termed
General
What infection is one in which microorganisms or their products are spread by the blood or lymph throughout the entire body?
Chronic
What infection ins one which has a relatively slow onset and long duration?
Focal
What infection spreads from one area of infection to set up other areas of infection in the body?
Exogenous
What infection is one in which the causative agents enter the body from the outside by entering through one of the portals of entry?
Secondary
What infection is one which occurs in an individual who already has an infection of another type?
Mixed
What infection is one caused by two or more different organisms at about the same time?
Bacteremia
What is a condition in which bacteria are found in the blood but not multiplying there?
Primary
What infection occurs in an individual who has no other active infection?
Septicemia
What is an infection of the blood with actual growth and multiplication of pathogens in the blood?
Terminal
What infection occurs as a late complication of another disease and is itself the actual cause of death?
endemic
A communicable disease which is constantly present to a greater or lesser degree within a community is termed.
epidemic
A communicable disease that attacks a large number of persons in a community at about the same time is termed
sporadic
A communicable disease that occurs in a community only as an occasional case is termed.
Pandemic
A communicable disease that has spread to more than one country may be described as
Exotoxins
_________ are poisonous substances produced by bacteria and released into the surrounding medium by the living cells.
Leucocidins
Which of the following substances produced by bacteria will destroy white blood cells?
Hemolysins
Which of the following substances produced by bacterial cells will destroy red blood cells?
Endotoxins
What are poisonous substances produced by bacteria and released only when the bacterial cells die and disintegrate?
May have never had the disease that is being carried, may have had the disease and recovered exhibits no symptoms of the disease
Which of the following is true of a carrier?
Active
What carrier harbors and disseminates the causative agents of a disease for a long time following recovery from the disease?
Droplet Spray
Which of the following is a mode of direct disease transmission?
Variola
What is the proper term for smallpox?
Biological vectors
Which of these transmit disease by biting the host?
Housefly
Which of the following would most likely transmit typhoid fever as a mechanical vector?
placenta
Congenital disease transmission occurs through the
Cilia
Which of the following are mechanical body defenses?
external body defense
Inflammation is primarily a
Antibodies
What substances are produced by the body in response to the entry of a foreign substance into the body?
procaryotic
Bacteria are considered to be
autotrophic
Bacteria which prefer inorganic material as their source of nutrition are called
endotoxin
A toxin which remains inside a bacteria until the bacteria disintegrates is called an
virulent
A bacterium which has a high degree of pathogenicity is said to be very
attenuated
A bacterium which has had its virulence reduced is said to be
rabies
Hydrophobia is a condition often associated with
bacteremia
The presence of bacteria in the blood with no noticeable growth or reproduction is
a carrier
A person who harbors a pathogenic microbe but does not exhibit any symptoms of the disease which it is known to cause is
bacterial disease
Tuberculosis is an example of a
genus
In the name Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the first name is the
occur in grape-like clusters
The prefix "staphylo" refers to an organism's tendency to
Capsules
Which of the following structures interfere most with phagocytosis?
capsule
Many bacteria possess a thick colorless gelatinous outer covering called a
Neurotropic
What is the classification for the disease poliomyelitis?
Viruses
Which of the following organisms requires living cells for growth and reproduction?
The gram stain reaction of the microbe
Which of the following is NOT a factor influencing the occurrence of an infection?
a tubercle
The type of lesion most closely associated with tuberculosis is
contagious
A highly communicable disease which is easily spread directly from person to person is considered.
innate immunity
Racial immunity is an example of
Enzymes
What type of substance is secreted by a living cell that can bring about chemical changes in another substance without undergoing any substantive change themselves?
infection
The invasion, multiplication, and spreading of microorganisms causing harm to the host is
True pathogens
What type of pathogens cause disease under most conditions?
seventy percent solution
For disinfection, alcohol is most effective in a
Inflammation
Which of these is an example of a physiological defense mechanism of the body against infection?
filtration
The process of passing a liquid through a material with pores so small that bacteria cannot pass through is
Benzalkonium chloride
Which of these chemical agents is a member of the quaternary ammonium compound family?
Serum hepatitis
Which of the following viruses is most likely transmitted from host to host by unsanitary injection procedures?
Candida albicans
Oral and vaginal thrush are caused by
rickettsia
Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by
rickettsia
Q fever is caused by
Indirect contact
The spread of microorganisms from host to host by food, milk, and water is what mode of transmission?
non-communicable
A disease that is not transmitted from one host to another is
normal flora
Those microorganisms that do not normally invade the body of the host to produce disease are
Boiling
Which of these is least effective in achieving a sterile environment
Scrubbing
Which mechanical method of sanitation is likely to be used in the practice of mortuary hygiene?
Staphylococcus
Which of the following is capable of producing an enterotoxin that will cause food poisoning?
droplet spray
A common cold can be transmitted by
flagella
The structures that produce motility for bacterial cells are the
They are susceptible to small amounts of heat or light
Which of these is NOT typical of a bacterial spore?
Phenol
Which of these chemical agents is described as a coal-tar derivative?
Entamoeba histolytica
Which of these is an example of a pathogenic protozoa?
They are spiral-shaped microbes which move with a twisting axis
Which of these statements is descriptive of spirochetes?
capsule
A gelatinous envelope that surrounds a bacilli is a
Within the cell cytoplasm
Where are spores formed?
flagellum
A thin whip-like organelle of bacterial motility is the
in pairs
Diplococci appear
7.4
The optimum pH for most pathogenic bacteria is
an opportunistic pathogen
A bacterium that produces infection only when specific conditions arise is
toxicity
The degree of the ability of a microbe to produce
a toxin
A poisonous substance produced by a microorganism is
Endogenous
Normal flora bacteria will cause which of the following types of infection?
phagocytosis
The process of ingestion of bacteria by leukocytes is
antibodies
The humoral theory of immunity involves
spherical cells arranged in chains
The word "strepococcus" describes
Soap
Which of the following is NOT an effective disinfectant?
A leukocyte
What body cell is known to perform the process of phagocytosis?
A nosocomial infection
Staphylococcus aureus causes
plague
Yersinia pestis causes
parrot fever
Chlamydia psittaci causes
Shingles
With what disease is Varicella Zoster identified?
German measles
With what disease is rubella identified?
Rabies
What disease is identified with the condition called hydrophobia?
tissue gas
Clostridium perfringens
Rabbit fever
What disease is caused by Francisella tularensis?
Anthrax
What disease is caused by Bacillus anthracis?
Syphilis
Which of the following is most likely to enter the body through the genitourinary tract?
Influenza
Which of the following is classified as pneumotropic?
Hepatitis
Which of the following is classified as viscerotropic?
Viricide
Which of these is a chemical agent capable of killing viral organisms?
Fungicide
Which of these chemical agents is capable of killing molds?
Natural immunity
What type of immunity is based solely on the genus and species of the host?
Incineration
What control process is used to destroy something of no value?
Moderate temperatures
What condition is most desired by mesophilic bacteria?
Fungicide
Which agent destroys yeasts and molds?
fumigant
An agent that liberates gasses for the purpose of destroying macroscopic life forms is a
Mesophilic
What type of bacteria grows best between temperatures of 30 degrees celsius and 40 degrees celsius?
heterotropic
Bacteria that require organic chemical compounds for nourishment are
cell wall
The structure providing a bacterial cell with rigidity and outlining the shape of the cell is the
An organism capable of producing disease in a susceptible host
Which of these statements best describes a pathogen?
a secondary infection
An infection that occurs after another infection is already present is
Acute infection
Which of these infections occurs with rapid onset and short duration?
a primary infection
The first infection that a person has at any given time is
mixed infection
An infection that is caused by two or more different organisms is a
Coffee cup
Which of the following is an example of a fomite?
Fibrinolysin
Which of these is an enzyme that dissolves fibrin?
Hyaluronidase
Which of the following enzymes is often referred to as "the spreading factor"?
Hemolysin
Which of the following enzymes causes blood plasma to clot?
Coagulase
Which of the following enzymes causes blood plasma to clot?
a host
An organism upon which a pathogen lives is
They are arthropod-borne
Which of these is a characteristic of rickettsial organisms?
They are intracellular parasites
Which of the following is a distinguishing feature of viruses?
Mumps
What disease is also known as epidemic parotitis?
Hepatitis type B
Which of the following diseases is caused by contact with contaminated blood serum?
The formation of antibodies against a pathogen
Which of these describes the virulence of a pathogen?
Epidermophyton
Dermatomycosis is caused by
Entamoeba histolytica
Which of these is a causative agent of dysentery?
Chickenpox
What disease is caused by the Varicella virus?
They are autotrophic organisms
Which of the following is NOT applicable to viruses?
Motility
Which of these describes the movement of bacteria through a medium?
symbiotic
The relationship between two organisms in which neither can survive independent of the other is
antagonistic
A relationship between two organisms in which one is detrimental to the other is
Salmonella typhi
Which of these microbes is known to produce an endotoxin?
microbiology
The study of all microscopic life forms is
Vibrio cholera
Which of these microbes is described as being "comma" shaped?
Amoebic dysentery
Which of these is a disease caused by a protozoan parasite?
fungi
Those organisms that reproduce by budding are
multicellular
Molds are
streptobacilli
Rod-shaped bacteria that form chain-like arrangements are
Antibodies
Which of the following substances is most specific in antimicrobial action?
mutualism
A mutually advantageous symbiotic relationship between two organisms is
Bacteriostatic
What type of condition is produced by the application of an antiseptic?
Antiseptic
Which of these terms is synonymous with bacteriostatic?
are bactericidal
Ultraviolet rays of sunlight
the placenta
Congenital disease transmission occurs through
They damage the DNA or RNA of the microbe
Why are ultraviolet light rays lethal to bacteria?
tetanus
Another name for the disease "lockjaw" is
Staphylococcus aureus
Acne, boils, and pus formation on the skin is most commonly caused by
To render an object free of all living organisms
What is the implication of sterilization?
otitis media
An inflammation of the middle ear caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae is
tetanus
The entrance into a host by means of a deep puncture wound may cause
tularemia
A synonymous term for rabbit fever is
Syphilis
Which of the following is caused by a spirochete?
Streptococcus pneumoniae
What organism causes the condition of lobar pneumonia?