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chapter 32 Activity
Terms in this set (71)
The state of being in a straight line. Example: A person's cervical spine is extended when the head is held straight on the spinal column.
joint movement activated by the person
fixation or immobilization of a joint
decrease in the size of a body structure
efficient use of the body as a machine and as a means of locomotion
hard, nonvascular connective tissue found in the joints as well as in the nose, ear, thorax, trachea, and larynx
permanently contracted state of a muscle
position in which the person sits on the edge of the bed with legs and feet dangling over the side of the bed
decreased muscle tone; synonym for hypotonicity
complication resulting from extended plantar flexion
exercise involving muscle contractions with resistance varying at a constant rate
exercise in which muscle tension occurs without a significant change in muscle length
movement in which muscles shorten (contract) and move
tough, fibrous bands that bind joints together and connect bones and cartilage
negative nitrogen balance
condition resulting in muscle wasting and decreased physical energy for movement and work (e.g., anorexia nervosa and certain cancers)
nerve cells, which conduct impulses from one part of the body to another
the correction or prevention of disorders of body structures used in locomotion
condition characterized by loss of calcium from bone tissue
absence of strength secondary to nervous impairment
impaired muscle strength or weakness
manual or mechanical means of moving the joints
patient care ergonomics
practice of designing equipment and work tasks to conform to the capability of the worker in relation to patient care
range of motion
complete extent of movement of which a joint is normally capable
increased muscle tone
strong, flexible, inelastic fibrous bands that attach muscle to bone
normal, partially steady state of muscle contraction
the way one holds one's body; a pose or position
The ability to keep an upright posture while standing still or moving.
changing body position
responsible for the subconscious maintenance of the body's posture when movement and position is altered and they ensure that the body remains upright and aligned.
The study of workplace equipment design or how to arrange and design devices, machines, or workspace so that people and things interact safely and most efficiently.
Bones of the body
Application of Body Mechanics to Prevent Injury
proper body movement in daily activities, the prevention and correction of problems associated with posture, and the enhancement of coordination and endurance.
factors effecting movement and alignment
The semi-sitting position, or Fowler's position, calls for the head of the bed to be elevated 45 to 60 degrees.
Supine or Dorsal Recumbent Position
. In the supine position, the patient lies flat on the back with the head and shoulders slightly elevated with a pillow unless contraindicated, such as spinal anesthesia or surgery on the spinal vertebrae.
Side-Lying or Lateral Position
In the side-lying position, the patient lies on the side and the main weight of the body is borne by the lateral aspect of the lower scapula and the lateral aspect of the lower ilium
In the prone position, the person lies on the abdomen with the head turned to the side.
bones, joints, muscles, tendons, framework of body giving shape, ability to move and protection,
A condition in which the body's bones become weak and break easily.
lack of muscle activity; reduces muscle size, tone, and power
purposeful physical activity that is planned, structured, and repetitive, and that improves or maintains physical fitness
state of being unable to move
Activities that the nurse plans and implements to help the patient achieve identified outcomes
threadlike , immovable , sutures between bones of skull
slightly moveable , Pubic symphysis; joints between bodies of vertebrae
joint cavities , freely moveable , Gliding, hinge, pivot, condyloid, saddle, ball-and-socket joints
Lateral movement of a body part away from the midline of the body. Example: A person's arm is abducted when it is moved away from the body.
Lateral movement of a body part toward the midline of the body. Example: A person's arm is adducted when it is moved from an outstretched position to a position alongside the body.
Turning in a circular motion; combines abduction, adduction, extension, and flexion. Example: Circling the arm at the shoulder, as in bowling or a serve in tennis.
The state of being bent. Example: A person's cervical spine is flexed when the head is bent forward, chin to chest.
Backward bending of the hand or foot. Example: A person's foot is in dorsiflexion when the toes are brought up as though to point them at the knee
The state of exaggerated extension. It often results in an angle greater than 180 degrees. Example: A person's cervical spine is hyperextended when looking overhead, toward the ceiling.
Flexion of the foot. Example: A person's foot is in plantar flexion in the footdrop position.
Turning on an axis; the turning of a body part on the axis provided by its joint. Example: A thumb is rotated when it is moved to make a circle.
A body part turning on its axis toward the midline of the body. Example: A leg is rotated internally when it turns inward at the hip and the toes point toward the midline of the body.
A body part turning on its axis away from the midline of the body. Example: A leg is rotated externally when it turns outward at the hip and the toes point away from the midline of the body.
three types of muscles in muscular skeletal system
: (1) skeletal, (2) cardiac, and (3) smooth or visceral muscles.
Coordinated body movement
is the ability of muscles to work together for purposeful movement
are the group of reflexes (automatic movements) that maintain body position and equilibrium, whether at rest or during movement.
Patient care ergonomics
the practice of designing equipment and work tasks to conform to the capability of the worker in relation to patient care.
Total Hip Replacement Precautions
• Caution with turning patient (keep legs abducted with pillow)
• Do NOT cross leg over the other to turn them
• Once on side keep pillow between the knees at all times (per Health Care Prescription)
• Toilet Extenders
all the chemical reactions that occur in the body
- Formation/Presence of a blood clot in a blood vessel
- Vessel may be any vein or artery
• Example- in a deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or a coronary (artery) thrombosis.
- With immobile clients (or clients with ↓ mobility), there is a concern with DVT occurring
• Calf swelling, redness (erythema), leg warmth, and pain in one leg MAY indicate a DVT
- Is a clot (thrombus) that breaks loose & travels through the bloodstream
• Plugs another vessel
• In the lungs: pulmonary embolism (PE)
• In the brain: ischemic stroke (CVA)
• In the heart: myocardial infarction (MI)
The framework of the body, consisting of bones and other connective tissues, which protects and supports the body tissues and internal organs.
Functions of the skeletal system
support, protection, movement, storage, blood cell production
all movements that change position of bony parts of the body
Functions of the muscular system
Movement of the body
Maintenance of posture
Production of body heat
Constriction of organs and vessels
Contraction of the heart
reflexes that help us maintain a normal upright posture
influence an individual's posture, movement, and daily activity level.
Numerous factors, including growth and development, physical health, mental health, lifestyle variables, attitude and values, fatigue and stress, and external factors such as weather,
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