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JPT HOA 1 Byzantine architecture
Terms in this set (43)
4th Century - 6th Century
From Byzantine, Constantine renamed it to Constantinople ,now as" Istanbul " and also called " New Rome ". It was the Architecture of the Eastern Roman Empire w/c was dev. from Early Christian & Late Roman antecedent in the 4th century.
GEOGRAPHICAL IN FLUENCE
No good building stones , & local materials such as clay for bricks & rubble for concrete were used . Marble was also used but mostly imported materials.
Semi- tropical, thus flat roofs was used & combined w/ domes, to counter- act the New Empire
Political Division between East and West, followed by the division of Churches, due to" ICONOCLASTIC MOVEMENT" (decree to ban the use of statues as means of representations either of human or animal forms), & this made painting figures in decoration a substitute. Early Christian Basilica was merged w/ the domical system of the Byzantine
Ways of life and corrupt conditions contributed greatly to the fall of Roman Empire
SOCIAL & POLITICAL INFLUENCE
- built several military gates and towers ( defense against the Goths & Huns) but cannot avoid the Moslem or the Islamic people.
- responsible for rebuilding of St. Sophia " Divine Wisdom " w/c now turned to a Moslem Mosque.
Prominent Figures considered movers of this Architecture
built several military gates and towers ( defense against the Goths & Huns) but cannot avoid the Moslem or the Islamic people.
responsible for rebuilding of St. Sophia " Divine Wisdom " w/c now turned to a Moslem Mosque.
From 5t h to 11th Century was on of the fluctuating & gradually declining fortunes.The spirit of the Byzantine Empire persisted even after the Empire had fallen, Constantine had continued up to the present day to the seat of Patriarch of the Orthoox Church.
- in external design which resulted in the use of clay and rubble
- in internal treatment importing "marble"
1. Characterized by large pendentives supported domes to cover polygonal & square
2. Plans for churches & baptisteries; rounded arches, elaborated columns & colors.
3. Features the grouping of small domes or semi-domes around a large central dome.
4. Extensive use of
5. They don't use campanile and atrium in their churches.
1. S. Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul)
2. S. Vitale, Ravenna
3. S. Mark, Venice
4. The Little Metropole, Athens
Examples of buildings
S. Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul)
- also known as
- this is the most important mosque in Constantinople with
Anthemius of Tralles & Isodorus of Miletus
Anthemius of Tralles & Isodorus of Miletus
Architects of S. Sophia, Constantinople (Istanbul)
S. Vitale, Ravenna
founded by Justinian and for the commemoration of teh recovery of Ravenna
S. Mark, Venice
- greek cross in plan with
The Little Metropole, Athens
smallest building in the world called "cathedral"
1. Simple dome
2. Compound dome
3. Melon-shaped dome
3 types of domes developed in this architecture
type of dome developed in this architecture; dome & pendentives were part of the same sphere
type of dome developed in this architecture; dome is not a part but rises independently above them
type of dome developed in this architecture; consists of curved flutings which avoid the necessity of pendentives
1. Symbolic figures
2. Groups of saints
3. Peacock - symbol of eternal life
4. Endless knot - symbol of eternity
5. Sacred Monograms of Christ
Most popular forms of ornaments
symbol of eternity
symbol of eternal life
1. Opus sectile
2. Opus alexandria
Most popular mosaic patterns for pavements
1. Dome - head and shoulder of Christ
2. Pendentives - pictures of the 4 evangelists
3. Apse - virgin and child
4. Walls - with representation of saints and pictures of life of Christ
The interiors usually have glass mosaic or frescoes following the special order of victorian decoration:
shape of church plan
that part of a cruciform church, projecting at right angles to the nave
deep abacus of byzantine column capitals
a thickened abacus or supplementary capital set above a column capital to receive the thrust of an arch. Also called
1. Simple (dome and pendentives are of the same sphere)
2. Compound (dome is raised above the pendentives)
3. Melon shaped (use of fluting treatment on its outer surface)
3 types of domes
type of dome; dome and pendentives are of the same sphere
type of dome; use of fluting treatment on its outer surface
type of dome; dome is raised above the pendentives
during this time, use of statues and icons were forbidden
boasts its great dome which seems to float above the vast central space
added by muslims in the Hagia Sophia when they turned it into a mosque
12 meters high
Height of defensive walls of Byzantine cities
black and red tesserae on white background
1. Characteristics - simplicity in exterior, richness in interior
2. Materials - bricks
3. System of construction - fusion of domical and columnar construction
4. Fenestrations - flat, semicircular, horseshoe arches
5. Mouldings - seldomly used
6. Decorations - fresco paintings and symbols
7. Roof - domes
8. Important structures - churches
3. System of construction
8. Important structures
1. Hagia Sophia (Church of Divine Wisdom) -
Anthemius of Tralles
Isodorus of Miletus
2. St. Mark's Cathedral
Famous structures and architects
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