78 terms

BTE Test 2

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Terms in this set (...)

machine learning
artificial intelligence systems that learn from machine learning algorithms
artificial intelligence
devices designed to act intelligently, 2 fundamental groups: applied or general, applied is more common
natural language processing
allowing scientists to embed the technology into objects around us, whether or not they have a screen
human computer interaction
shifts from command base, on-screen interaction to conversational, giving computers the ability to interact with us in a more natural way
virtual assistant
AI with natural language processing, ex: Alexa, Siri
humanoid robot
life-like artificial intelligence that looks like a human
optical character recognition
printed, handwritten characters are recognition automatically based on previous examples
blockchain
a methodology, identity of members is known, transactions are secret
ledger
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distributed ledger
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block
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node
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transaction
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contract
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database
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distributed database
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cryptography
converts data into a format that is unreadable for an unauthorized user, allowing it to be transmitted without unauthorized entities decoding it back into a readable format
private key
only the owner can access this, decrypts the data
public key
anyone can access this, encrypts the data
encryption
converting an original message into a form that can only be read by the intended receiver
cryptocurrency
digital currency that uses cryptography for security measures
bitcoin
blockchain application, based on public/private keys, a cryptocurrency
privacy
the right to be left alone and to be free of unreasonable personal intrusions
opt-in
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opt-out
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electronic surveillance
using technology to monitor individuals as they go about their daily routines, conducted by employers, the government, and other institutions
information security
protecting organization's information resources from unauthorized access, use, disclosure, disruption, modification, or destruction
threat
any danger to which a system may be exposed
vulnerability
possibility that the system will suffer harm by a threat
data breach
breach in the database of a corporation, ex: Target 2018
unintentional threat
human error, social engineering
deliberate threat
espionage, information extortion, theft of information, sabotage
information security controls
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access controls
restrict unauthorized individuals from using information resources and involve two major functions: authentication and authorization
physical controls
prevent unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company's facilities
communications controls
protect the movement of data across networks, ex: firewalls, anti-malware
authentication
proof of identity
authorization
permissions to do certain activities
risk mitigation
implement controls and develop recovery plan
risk management
identify, control, and minimize the impact of threats
disaster recovery plan
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SCADA attack
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software attacks
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alien software
programs installed on a computer without user's consent or knowledge, use up valuable system resources and report user activities back to the creator
social engineering
attacker uses social skills to trick a legitimate employee into providing confidential company information such as passwords
identity theft
deliberate assumption of another person's identity to access financial information through phishing, stealing, social engineering
virus
deliberate threat that attaches to a host computer
denial of service (DoS)
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distributed denial of service (DDoS)
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ransomware
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cyberterrorism
attack via the Internet to use a target's computer systems to cause physical, real-world harm, usually to carry out a political agenda
cookies
small files stored on a computer containing information about visited websites
malware
any software that brings harm to a computer system
spyware
collects personal information about users without their consent
adware
display pop-up advertisements on computer screens
spamware
create a launchpad for sending out spam emails
biometrics
authentication method that examines a person's innate physical characteristics (fingerprints, retina scans)
whitelisting
allows acceptable software to run
blacklisting
allows everything to run unless it is explicitly not allowed
anti-malware software
identify and eliminate malicious software
virtual private network (VPN)
encrypted tunnel of communication, provides online privacy and anonymity
firewalls
monitors network traffic and connection attempts into and out of a network or computer, prevents a specific type of information from moving between untrusted networks, such as the Internet, and private networks, such as your company's network
programming
process of problem solving with computers
programming language
computer language engineered to create a standard form of commands
syntax
set of rules
variables
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comments
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source code
set of instructions and statements, written by a programmer, which determines what the program does
documentation
comprehensive information on the capabilities, design details, features, and limitations of a systems or application software
algorithm
step-by-step problem-solving process
integrated development environment (IDE)
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compiler
identifies the syntax errors and also suggests how to correct them
linker
combines object code of this program with other programs in the library to create executable code
conditional statement
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flowchart
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2-way selection
IF expression is true, statement1 is executed;
otherwise (else), statement2 is executed
while loop
expression provides an entry condition to the loop, statement continues to execute until the expression is no longer true
application (computer program)
created through programming language to control the behavior and output of a machine through accurate algorithms, similar to the human communication process, ex: Python, C++