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Terms in this set (115)
Legally mandated client
________ client: receives services under the threat of a court order
______clients: they, themselves apply for services
Non Voluntary clients
________clients: potential clients who often experience nonlegal pressures from family members, teachers, and referral sources; in between mandatory and voluntary
the creation of social institutions that support the welfare of individuals and groups
those aspects of social justice that relate to economic well-being, such as a livable wage, pay equity, nondiscrimination in employment and social security
provision of services to vulnerable people, promoting social functioning before problems develop; Ex: programs, family planning, well-baby clinics, parent education, premarital counseling...
seeks to restore functioning that has been impaired by physical or mental difficulties; Ex: people with paralysis, chronic mental illness, developmental disabilities, etc...
the elimination/amelioration of existing social problems
represent strongly held beliefs about how the world should be, and how people should normally behave, and what the preferred conditions of life are
represents a special helping mechanism devised to aid those who suffer from the variety of ills found in industrial society
populations include individuals, couples, families
practitioners deliver services directly for clients in face-to-face situations
intervention is designed to change the systems that directly affect clients, such as the family, peer group, or classroom
involves the processes of social planning and community organization
Ecological systems model
a way to examine strengths and weaknesses in transactions between persons, families, cultures, and communities as systems, Adapted from both systems theory and ecological theory
the places where organisms live; consists of the physical and social settings within a particular cultural context
the statuses or roles occupied by members of the community
Subsystems of the individual
biophysical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, motivational
parent/child, marital family, kin, friends, neighbors, cultural reference groups, spiritual belief systems, other members of social networks
housing, neighborhood environment, buildings, water, weather, climate
includes those persons who are requesting a change, sanction it, are expected to benefit from it, and contract to receive it
the focus of change efforts
those formal and informal resources and persons that the social worker needs to cooperate with to accomplish a purpose (includes family, friends, etc)
special subset of an action system that includes practitioners and formal service systems involved in work on the target problems
relatively rigid boundaries that prevent the input or export of information
have relatively permeable boundaries, perimitting a freer exchange
suggests that the same outcome can be achieved even with different starting points
beginning from the same starting points may end in different outcomes
consistent with the medical definition of EBP; focuses on practices of the individual practitioner
comprised activities in widely varying settings; aimed at assisting individuals, couples, or families to cope more effectively with problems that impaired their social functioning
evolved as a practice method; with group workers practicing in settlement houses and neighborhoods, on the streets, in hospitals, etc...
considers multiple dimensions of human functioning such as biological, social, and psychological factors
includes work with individuals, couples, families, and groups
Clinical social work practice
"the provision of mental health services for the Dx, Tx, and prevention of mental, behavioral, and emotional disorders in individuals, families, and groups; includes resolution and prevention of psychosocial problems
Clinical case management
includes developing comprehensive assessments and monitoring client progress, among other activities
refer to tangible resources such as links to institutions as well as non tangible resources such as coping and cognitive resources
an intermediary who assists in connecting people with resources
assuming primary responsibility for assessing the needs of a client and arranging and coordinating the delivery of essential goods and services provided by other resources
entails pinpointing factors in agency structure, policy, and procedures that have a negative impact on service delivery
a process whereby an expert enables a consultee to deliver services more effectively to a client by increasing, developing, modifying, or freeing the consultee's knowledge, skills, attitudes or behavior at hand.
responsible for orienting staff to how they can learn through supervision, lines of authority, requirements, and policies of the setting; responsible for guiding supervisees on how to use theory in and in understanding the helping process
seek to fill a gap in services
Access to Resources
social workers expected to elevate service to others above their own self-interest; strive to ensure access to needed information, services, and resources; equality of opportunity; and meaningful participation in decision making for all people
Dignity and worth
demonstrate respect for the value of the persons your working with
a meaningful relationship with client is important
Value of competence
social workers practice only within their areas of ability and continually develop and enhance their professional expertise
in some circumstances, information can be revealed without informed consent, such as a bona fide emergency in which a client's life appears to be at stake or when the social worker is legally compelled to do so, as in the reporting of child or elder abuse
refers to the same dynamic when the client consciously or unconsciously associates the social worker with past experiences in such a way that perceptions and interactions with the social worker are affected
conveyed by listening attentively, responding sensitively to client's feelings; using facial expressions, voice intonations, and gestures that convey interest and concern
"the practical recognition of the right and need of clients to freedom in making their own choices and decisions."
preventing self-determination based on a judgement of the client's own good
the social worker implements protective interventions to enhance the client's quality of life, sometimes despite the client's objections
requires that social workers "use clear and understandable language to inform clients of the purpose of the services risks related to the services, etc..."
refer to clear lines of difference that are maintained between the social worker and the client in an effort to preserve the working relationship
refers to communications made within a "legally protected relationship" which "cannot be introduced into court without the consent of the person making the communication" typically the patient or client
engaging clients successfully; reduces the level of threat and gains the trust of the clients, who recognize the SW intends to be helpful
clients have not yet considered a problem that has been perceived by others
they are aware of the issue but are not fully aware of their options, the benefits of changing, and the consequences for not doing so
adequacy or deficiency, success or failure, strengths or weaknesses of salient systems in environment
aims to identify systems that must be strengthened, mobilized, or developed to satisfy client's unmet needs
mutually negotiated; consists of a formal agreement or understanding between the social worker and the client that specifies the goals to be accomplished, relevant strategies to be implemented, roles and responsibilities or participants, practical arrangements, and others...
refers to an expectation or belief that one can successfully accomplish tasks or perform behaviors associated with specified goals
Additive empathetic responses
focus on deeper feelings; making interpretations of what clients have shared
a technique used to foster self-awareness; helps clients become more aware of growth-defeating discrepancies in perceptions, feelings, communications, behavior, values, and attitudes, and then examine those discrepancies in relation to stated goals
fit between client motivation and what the social worker attempts to provide
encourages clients to continue verbalizing their concerns (ex: repeating a word, nodding)
Reflection of content
provides feedback indicating that the social worker has grasped the content of the client's message (rephrasing with different words what they express)
Reflection of feelings
shows that the social worker is aware of emotions the client has experienced or is currently experiencing
social workers introduce the process of goal negotiation by explaining the rationale for formulating those goals; goals will give direction to the problem-solving process
asking client to share a vision of how the situation would look he/she were to awaken the next day and find that, by a miracle, the problem was gone. What would he/she notice as different?
involves the ability of the social worker to perceive accurately and sensitively the inner feelings of the client and to communicate his/her understanding of those feelings
demonstrating through accurate reflection of feelings that the social worker comprehends the client's inner experiencing
can make the social worker less effective;
beyond reflecting the conflict and pain clients might be experiencing; we are called on to consider ways they might alleviate their situation
to act with others to address social and economic justice concerns
involves supporting and condoning the other person's feelings ("I'd feel the same way if I was in your position.")
involves understanding the other person's feelings without taking the person's side ("I sense your feeling... You seem to be saying...").
Lack of empathic responding: judgemental, confrontational
low level of empathic responding: changing the subject, giving advice prematurely, lecturing, diverting clients from their problems
moderately low level: inappropriately qualify feelings, inaccurately interpret feelings, ignore what client is feelingYou'll just have to be patient. I can see you're upset. You feel angry because your case plan has not been more successful to date. Maybe you're expecting too much too soon; there is a lot of time yet.
interchangeable level: responses do not appreciably add affect or reach beyond the surface feelings, nor do they subtract from the feeling and tone expressed; facilitate further exploratory and problem-focused responses by the client "You're really angry about the slow progress in your case and are wondering whether your efforts are likely to succeed."I can tell you feel very let down and are asking yourself, "Will I ever get my son back?"
moderately high level : accurately identify client's implicit underlying feelings/aspects of problem; enables client's to get in touch with deeper feelings and unexplored meanings and purposes of behavior; aimed at enhancing self-awareness. You feel very frustrated with the lack of progress in getting your son back. You wonder whether there is any hope in working with a new worker and this system, which you feel hasn't been helping you.
high level: accurately responds to the full range and intensity of both surface and underlying feelings and meanings; accurately identity implicit patterns, themes, purposes; identify goals within the client's message. "You just seem to be courageous in fighting battles, and you have learned some skills in assertiveness, and as you say, that can be a two-edged or three edged sword. Sometimes your assertiveness gets you what you want and sometimes your assertiveness causes some people to look at you as the squeaky wheel that has squeaked too much.
conscious and intentional revealing of information about oneself through both verbal expressions and nonverbal behaviors
include messages that express the social worker's personal reaction to the client during the session "I'm impressed with the progress you've made this past week. You applied what we discussed last week and have made another step toward learning to control angry feelings."
Personal self-disclosure messages
center on struggles or problems the social worker is currently experiencing or has experienced that are similar to client's problems.
the sharing of self by relating in a natural, sincere, spontaneous, open, and genuine matter
social workers assume the roles of compromiser, mediator, and enforcer in addition to the more comfortable role of counselor
involves the use and sometimes blending of discrete skills that enable social worker to maintain psychological contact with clients on a moment-by-moment basis and to convey accurate understanding of their messages
the extent to which social workers' responses provide feedback to clients that their messages are accurately received
the extent to which the content of social workers' responses is perceived by clients as relevant to their substantive concerns
Indicate social workers are listening attentively and encourage the client to verbalize
signal the social worker's attentiveness and encourage the client to continue verbalizing (nonverbal or verbal)
nodding, facial expressions,
brief messages that convey interest and encourage verbalization- "Yes, I see, But?"
involve repeating, in a questioning tone of voice or with emphasis on a word or phrase- "I've really had it with the way my supervisor is treating me." "Had it?"
used to respond to both content messages and affect
Reflections of content
emphasize the cognitive aspects of client messages, such as situations, ideas, objects, or persons Senior client: I don't want to get into a living situation in which I will not be able to make choices on my own."Social worker: So independence is a very important issue for you.
Reflections of affect
focus attention on the affective part of the communication; relate with responses that accurately capture clients' affect and help them reflect on and sort through their feelings
identify the emotions expressed by client, simply identify the emotion; they don't go beyond what client has said
go beyond what the client has stated, adding substantial meaning or emphasis to convey a more complex picture; may add content Ex: teenage client- "My mother really expects a lot from me," social worker- "She has high expectations for you; she things that you have a lot of ability"
Verbalizing an unspoken emotion
form of reflection that names an emotion that the client has implied but not stated
another form of adding content; put's clients response in a different light beyond what they had considered Ex: "I have gone through treatment 3 or 4 times. Maybe one of these I will get it right." "It sounds as if you have persisted, trying treatment again after earlier disappointments; you haven't given up on yourself."
captures both sides of the dilemma that is fostering ambivalence about acting
Reflections with a twist
reflections in which social worker agrees in essence with the dilemma, but changes the emphasis, trying to indicate that the dilemma is not unsolvable
useful for clients who are considering taking an action but have not decided on what to do
a person hasn't decided whether an issue exists or whether they wish to address it
they are aware of an issue but have not decided whether to take action
generally used to elicit specific info; define a topic and restrict client's response to a few words or yes or no answer
invite expanded expression and leave client free to express what seems most relevant and important; often start with "what" or "how" not "why"
do not take the form of a question but embody a request for info- I'm curious about... I'm wondering if...I'm interested in knowing...
confirm or deny messages; if SW's verbal and nonverbal communication are not the same, it could lead client to not trust you Ex: facial expressions
a basic skills critical to the helping process; communicated by receptive behaviors (facing client squarely, learning forward, maintaining eye contact, etc)
suggests that the client will act to protect valued freedoms; when valued freedoms (freedom to have one's own opinions, etc) feel threatened, clients will withdraw, argue or move to a superficial topic
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