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Terms in this set (135)
Benefits of a monolingual class
everyone has similar problems, so easier to anticipate problems.
Disadvantages of a monolingual class
learners will be able to understand each other very well, so there's no breakdown in communication
made without vibrating the vocal chords
made by vibrating the vocal chords
made by blocking or restricting the airflow
made by obstructing or stopping the airflow. They are produced with a sudden release of air, so also known as plosive consonants.
Plosive is used more frequently than stops, but remember that not all air which is stopped, is released.
voiced bilabial plosive, fortis. Aspirated, especially at the beginning of a stressed syllable.
unvoiced bilabial plosive, lenis
the amount of energy needed to articulate the sounds. fortis = strong, lenis = weak.
accompanied by a puff of air
distinguished by only 1 phoneme e.g. dog/bog, ship/sheep
voiceless, alveolar, plosive
voiced alveolar plosive
many languages have dental /t/, /d/ plosives
voiceless velar plosive
voiced velar plosive
/t/ /k/ /p/
aspirated at the beginning of words
/d/ /g/ /b/
formed by pushing air through a gap, causing audible friction
voiceless, labio-dental fricative
voiced labiodental fricative
voiceless dental fricative
voiced dental fricative
voiceless alveolar fricative
voiced alveolar fricative
voiceless post alveolar fricative
voiced post alveolar fricative
a stop followed immediately by a plosive
unvoiced alveolar affricate
voiced alveolar affricate
voiceless glottal fricative
opening of the vocal chords, and the friction that results from the air passing through it
made by closing the vocal chords
sometimes appears as an alternate pronunciation for /t/ after a stressed syllable e.g. sit, butter
glottal stop isn't a phoneme
because replacing one phoneme for another has the potential to create another word
phonemic vs phonetic
phonemic is the abstract system of sounds.
phonetic is what people actually said.
a glottal stop combined with a voiceless plosive or affricate e.g. watching/kitchen
/l/, /r/, /w/, /j/
a narrowing of the channel which the airstream flows through but the tongue doesn't form a complete closure (like with plosives) nor does it form a narrow constriction to produce friction (like affricates)
lateral, because air flows along the side of the tongue
semi vowels - have characteristics of both vowels and consonants e.g. manner of articulation like /u:/ and /I/, but they act like consonants in syllables (they appear at the beginning of the syllable, before the vowel sound)
consonants don't normally occur on their own, but in combination with other vowels to form a syllable. BUT /l/, /r/, /m/,//n/ can form syllables without vowels e.g. random, button /raendm/, /b^tn/. symbol = small vertical line below the consonant.
is particularly evident in pronunciation because it requires changing habits or building new ones.
no blocking or restriction of airflow
indicates a long vowel, but the actual length depends on the phonetic context
the sounds that come before and after, and whether or not they are stressed
a glide from one vowel sound to another
diphthong + schwa
= triphthong e.g. tyre, tower
many languages have a smaller number of vowel sequences than English
so they have developed a habit of using a smaller range of tongue, jaw, and lip positions
same pronunciation, different spelling
same spelling, different pronunciation
an unambigious way to represent sounds in writing
the letter 'r' is always pronounced, no matter where it appears in a word
'the letter 'r' is only pronounced when it appears before a vowel sounds
is often more appealing to learners because it corrosponds more closely to spelling, and can help them be more intelligible.
front of the tongue is raised and in the position for /i:/
back of the tongue is raised, and in the position for /u:/
Irish English - clear /l/
is used in all positions
clear /l/, dark /l/
generally, a clear /l/ is used before a vowel and a dark /l/ before a consonant or a pause.
no contact between the tongue and the alveolar ridge, and so dark /l/ isn't articualted and /w/ is produced
clipped vowel sounds
vowel sounds are often clipped before /p/, /b/, /t/ e.g. see/seat/seed
train / rain
the /r/ is different - in train it is unvoiced and not-a-fricative, in rain it is voiced and a fricative. These are different allophones of the phoneme /r/
knowing about allophonic variants
can be useful because it can help learners distinguish between phonemes, and know which sounds which are allophones in their L1 but phonemes in English (e.g. /b/ and /v/ for Spanish speakers, or /l/ and /r/ for Japanese speakers)
we should assume that syllables begin with consonants, where possible.
have only one vowel sound.
one or two consonant phonemes before the vowel
a sequence of consonant sounds without an intervening vowel
flaw, ski, grow
have initial two-consonant clusters
eats, ache, filmed, thanks
have final consonant clusters
final consonant clusters
are often simplified e.g. sixth
language vary as to the type of syllable they allow
e.g. Slavic languages allow complex consonant clusters
when consonant clusters are difficult
learners might insert a vowel sound or they might delete one of the consonants.
longer, louder, produced with more energy, carry intonation movements
tend to contain the weak forms /schwa/ or /i/
the same as /i:/ but without the length
tends to occur on the first or second syllable, primary stress comes later, after at least one unstressed syllable
the way the word is said in isolation (i.e. no connected speed). The dictionary pronunciation.
linking the consonant at the end of one word to the vowel at the beginning of another e.g. look up, pick it up
when a word ends in /i:/, /ei/, /ɔɪ/ or /aɪ/ and is followed by another vowel sound, there is the impression of a fleeting /j/ sound e.g. me and you, day and night.
when a word ends in /u:/,/əʊ/,/aʊ/ and is followed by another vowel sound, there is the impression of a /w/ sound - e.g. go in, blue in green
only in non-rhotic accents e.g. where are you?
what /r/ linking is sometimes called, because it isn't evident in the spelling and so some people think it shouldn't be pronounced e.g. law and order.
short cuts in connected speech
weak forms, elision, assimilation
used in stressed contexts
much more common than strong forms
vowels in weak forms
usually reduced to /ə/ or /i/.
"the sound of silence". the schwa is a prime candidate e.g. primary, temporary, deliberately. elision means that they have one less syllable than the spelling suggests.
elision of the /ə/
can sometimes result in illegal consonant clusters e.g. banana - bnana, phonetic - fnetik
/t/ /d/ elision
problem with elision
is that it can be difficult to distinguish between the past and present form of the verbs
a blur of sounds, means adjacent sounds sound siilar to each other
if the first sound is a stop
it is not released (assimilation)
a type of assimilation, simplifying consonant clusters into one sound
/t/ or /d/ or /s/ or /z/ plus following /j/ sound
coalescence e.g. got you (gotcha) would you (wudja)
affects alveolar consonats, but can affect others (bilabial + velar = velar + velar)
assimilation can also
cause changes in voicing e.g. have to --> hafta
implications of assimilation for learners
1. assimilation is optional and learners shouldn't be made to feel they have to produce it.
2. learners might find assimilation helps them produce sound sequences which they otherwise would find difficult.
3. assimilation is important for learners in terms of listening. If they can understand the principle, it will help them make educated guesses.
one view of intonation
is that most adults can't "get it", which is an appealing view to teachers as it means they don't have to teach it.
learners will never move from saying words to actually communicating
the best time to work on intonation
is to start from the very beginning
the 'music' of English
phrasing, pausing, linking, rhythm, melody, variation in speed
developing fluency and 'speed' of articulation
is about producing chunks of speech at a reasonable speed, and pausing between them in appropriate places.
The natural phrases of speech, usually separated by a micropause
prominence in tone units
at least one word, sometimes two, is given prominence within a tone unit. Often called 'sentence stress' but this term is misleading because it's not within the sentence, but within the tone unit.
help indicate where tone units begin and end
usually given to 'content words' not functional words. Speakers give prominence to words, but if the word if multi-syllabic, then we give prominence to one syllable in the word.
if a word is said in isolation
it forms its own tone unit, the prominence is on the syllable which is stressed in its citation form.
stress vs prominence
stress is a feature of a word in its citation form. Prominence is a feature of a tone unit.
pitch movements that take place on some prominent syllables
the syllable that carries the tone. If there is only one prominent syllable, then this one carries the tone. If there are two, then the second one is the tonic prominence.
tail of tone unit
unstressed syllables after the last prominence in the tone unit
techniques to make intonation more easily perceptible
say the tone unit unusually slowly, or say with accurate rhythm and intonation but hum instead of saying words.
intonation and grammar
depends on function, context, a speaker's intention, the relationship between speakers, etc. There are some tendencies however, which can help learners.
intonation tendency: scene setting/background information
background info takes a rise/fall and the events take a fall.
I was doing some shopping the other day and I met an old friend of mine.
advanatges of drawing learners' attention to intonation
they'll acquire a way of speaking structures which is typical, although not necessarily universal.
they are more likely to notice typical intonation patterns when they hear them elsewhere.
are never 100% predictable
din and tonic
prominent syllables, especially tonic syllables are utterered the most clearly. They emerge out of the din of the other syllables.
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